Graphium megarus megapenthes  (Fruhstorfer, 1902)

Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Up. Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Un. Graphium megarus megapenthes ♀ Up. Graphium megarus megapenthes ♀ Un.
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand.
Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Up. Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Un. Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Up. Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Un.
♂, Cham Pasak, Laos. ♀, Dong Nai, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Up. Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Un. Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ genitalia Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ genitalia
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♂ genitalia, Phetchaburi, Thailand.

ON : Papilio meagrus [sic] megapenthes Fruhstorfer, 1902
OD : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 15(1):161.
TL : S.Vietnam. (NHML)
Distribution : Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam,
Hainan, China, Langkawi, W.Malaysia (North), Sumatra.
megarus megapenthes Map

Synonyms

Papilio similis Lathy, 1899 : Entomologist 32:149. TL. Perak. (homonym)
Papilio megarus mendicus Fruhstorfer, 1902 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 15(1):162. TL. Muok-Lek ; Kanburi, Siam. (NHML)
Papilio megarus martinus Fruhstorfer, 1902 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 15(1):162-163. TL. Deli, Sumatra. (NHML)


Type Materials Information

similis ; ♂, Type (red), #149408, Larut, Perak, Mal. H.Kunstler (NHML, examined)
megapenthes ;
♂, Type (red), #149406, Februar. Xom-Gom, Sud-Annam, H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)
♀, Type (red), #149407, Februar. Xom-Gom, Sud-Annam, H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)
martinus ; ♂, Type, Deli, Sumatra. (NHML, examined)
mendicus ;
♂, Type (red), #149404, Januar. Muok-Lek, 1000', Siam, H.Fruhstofer (NHML, examined)
'♀, Type (red), #149405, Januar. Hinlap, Siam, H.Fruhstofer' (NHML, examined) [This specimen belongs to Graphium macareus.]


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio megarus mendicus ; Fruhstorfer,[1903] : 229-230. (Muok-Lek; Kanburi)
Papilio megarus similis ; Godfrey,1916 : 113.
Papilio megarus similis ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Papilio megarus similis ; Godfrey,1930 : 220. (all over)
Papilio megarus similis ; Godfrey,1932a : 264. (P)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Pinratana,1977 : 62, figs.P54,♂,♂(Un). (all over)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 34,45, pl.62, figs.52,♂,♀. (Chaiyaphum; Chanthaburi; Phetchaburi; Songkhla; Trang)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 16, fig.39,♂. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Huay Sing; Ban Na Lak; Ban Gok Tum; Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Na Pho Krang; Kaeng Tana; Nam Tok Soi Sawan; Kaeng E-Keow; Phu Hin Dang)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 46. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Mu)
Paranticopsis megarus megapenthes ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 116, pl.30, figs.P60,♂,♂(Un),♀. (Ranong)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Les Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, figs. (Koh Samui)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 136, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Phu Khiewo; Sarika; Wan Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Khao Khiwo; Sai York Noi; Kaeng Krachan; Ka Chong; Haadjai; Tarutao Is; Than To WF.)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 116, pl.30, figs.P57,♂,♂(Un),♀. (Ranong)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Phitsanulok; Khon Kaen; Phetchaburi) (accessed: 2022.09.02)
Arisbe megarus megapenthes ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 168, fig.Abb.Pa-136-137. (Phang Nga)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 87. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 48, pl.13, figs.7,♂,8,♂(Un) ; pl.14, figs.1,♀,2,♀(Un). (Pakse; Luang Prabang; Tha Ngone)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 201, pl.25, figs.♂,♀,♀. (Thabok; Thateng)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 308. (Thabok; Hinboun)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Onodera,2022 : pl.49, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un), text:10. (Bolikhamxai; Savannakhet)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs.♀,♀(Un). (Botum Sakor NP.)
Graphium megarus ; Onodera,2008 : 59,figs.♂,♂(Un).
Graphium megarus ; Onodera,2009 : 38. (Siem Reap: Phnum Kulen)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio megarus megapenthes ; Fruhstorfer,[1903] : 229-230. (Tonkin: Than-Moi / S.Annam: Xom-Gom)
Papilio megarus similis ; Jordan,1909 : 106. (Tonkin)
Papilio megarus similis ; Metaye,1957 : 84. (N)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 17, figs.5:10,♂,10:19(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1, 28, figs.♂[♀],♂[♀](Un),♀[♂]. (Cuc Phuong)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2007c : 37, figs.Pa-41,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Madagui; Dong Nai: Thac Mai)
Graphium megarus ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 38. (Thua Thien Hue: Huong Thuy)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 88-89, pl.27, figs.3a♂,3b♂(Un),3c♂. (throughout the country)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 14. (N / C / S)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Mai : 2♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 2♂ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 1♂ (photo by A.Giudici).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chaiyaphum : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 9♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 2♂ (incl.photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Bolikhamxai : 22♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 1♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 7♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Dong Nai : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forest at low to moderate elevations (alt. 20m - 900m). Males frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
The single female syntype of mendicus in NHML clearly belongs to Graphium macareus.


Literature

Lathy, P.I.,1899 :
Notes on the Indo-Australian Papilios in the collection of Mr. H.J.Adams, F.E.S., with descriptions of new species.
Entomologist 32:147-149.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1902 : Neue Papilio-Formen aus dem Indo-Malayischen Gebiet.
Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 15(1):161-168.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1903 : Verzeichnis der in Tonkin, Annam und Siam gesammelten Papilioniden und Besprechung verwandter Formen.
Berl. ent. Z. 47:167-234.

Jordan, K.,1909 : Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde
9:105-112.


Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Graphium megarus megapenthes ♀
♂, Phetchabun, Thailand. ♀, Bolikhamxai, Laos. (photo by K.Phongpiyamit)
Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂ Graphium megarus megapenthes ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

1996.10.08 - 2022.09.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.