Graphium agetes agetes  (Westwood, 1843)

Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Un. Graphium agetes agetes ♀ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♀ Un.
♂, Lao Cai, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito) ♀, Lao Cai, Vietnam. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Un. Graphium agetes agetes ♀ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♀ Un.
♂, Ha Giang, Vietnam. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Ha Giang, Vietnam. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Un. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Un.
♂, Lam Dong, Vietnam. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♂, Yala, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Up.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♂, Tak, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
Graphium agetes agetes ♂, Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂, Un. Graphium agetes agetes ♂, Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂, Un.
♂, Trang, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂, Trang, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♂, Lam Dong, Vietnam.
(photo by K.Saito)
Graphium agetes agetes ♀ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♀ Up. Graphium agetes agetes ♂ genitalia Graphium agetes agetes ♂ genitalia
♀, Houaphan, Laos.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂ genitalia, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ON : Papilio agetes Westwood, 1843
OD : Arcana Ent. 2(14):13, pl.55, figs.1,2.
TL : East Indies. (Sylhet ?) (♂, NHML)
Distribution : India to Myanmar, Thailand,
Laos, Vietnam, Hainan, W.Malaysia.
Graphium agetes agetes Map

Synonyms

Papilio agetes tenuilineatas Fruhstorfer, 1901 : Soc. ent. 16(12):89-90. TL. Xom-Gom, S.Annam. (♂, NHML)
Papilio agetes iponus Fruhstorfer, 1902 : Soc. ent. 17(8):58. TL. Ipot, Perak.
Papilio agetes forma tempor? tenuilineatus Fruhstorfer, 1903 : Berl. ent. Z. 47(3/4):199. TL. Tenasserim ; Annam ; Shan States ; Hainan. (♂, NHML)


Type Materials Information

agetes ; ♂, Type (red), Rh.11075, #149371, Silhet. (NHML, examined)
tenuilineatas ; ♂, Type, Februar. Xom-Gom, Sud-Annam, H.Fruhstorfer. (NHML, examined)
tenuilineatus ; ♂, Type (red), #149372, Tenasserim, Fruhstorfer. (NHML, examined)
iponus ; ♂, Type (red), #149373, Malaka, H.Fruhstorfer. (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio agetes agetes ; Godfrey,1916 : 111. (Phetchaburi River)
Papilio agetes agetes ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Papilio agetes agetes ; Godfrey,1930 : 215-216. (Prae: Me Song forest; Chonburi: Sriracha; Phetchaburi River; Chiang Mai)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Pinratana,1977 : 52, figs.P38a♂,♂(Un). (except P)
Graphium agetes iponus ; Pinratana,1977 : 52, fig.P38b, not fig. (P)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 32,44, pl.56, fig.45a♂. (Chiang Mai; Chanthaburi; Nakhon Nayok)
Graphium agetes iponus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 32,44, pl.56, fig.45b♂. (Ranong)
Graphium agetes ; Nishimura,1996a : 41-43, figs.6,♂,7,♂,8,♂,9,♂,10,♂. (Nan: Doi Phu Kha; Chiang Mai: Doi Pa Hompok; Chiang Dao; Chiang Rai: Wiang Pa Pao; Tak: Umphang; Chanthaburi: Khao Soi Dao; Namtok Pliew; Yala: Than To)
Pathysa agetes agetes ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 110, pl.27, figs.P53a♂,♂(Un). (Khao Yai; Wiang Pa Pao)
Pathysa agetes iponus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 110, pl.27, figs.P53b♂,♂(Un),♀. (Yala: Than To)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 132, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Doi Suthep; Phu Khiewo; Khao Yai; Nakohn Nayork; Kao Soi Dao; Thung Yai)
Graphium agetes iponus ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 132, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Kao Poh Ta; Khlong Naka; Ka Chong; Than To WF.)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 110, pl.27, figs.P50,♂,♂(Un),♀. (Khao Yai; Wiang Pa Pao)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 110, not fig. (Yala: Than To)
Graphium agetes agetes ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Chiang Mai; Chaiyaphum; Saraburi) (accessed: 2022.08.02)
Graphium agetes iponus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, fig. (Yala) (accessed: 2022.08.02)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio agetes f.agetes ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 150. (Thado)
Papilio agetes f.agetes ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 14. (Laos)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 47, pl.11, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un). (Vang Vieng)
Graphium agetes ; Nishimura,1996a : 41-43. (Viang Chan: Vang Vieng)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 201, pl.22, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀. (Lak Sao; Phong Saly)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 300. (Koun Kham; Lak Sao)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio agetes tenuilineatus ; Fruhstorfer,1903 : 199-200. (S.Annam: Xom-Gom)
Papilio agetes agetes ; Jordan,1909 : 87. (Tonkin : Annam)
Papilio agetes agetes ; Godfrey,1919 : 464. (S: Sui Kat)
Papilio agetes f.agetes ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 150. (Annam: Hue)
Papilio agetes f.agetes ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 14. (Tonkin / Annam)
Papilio agetes ; Lemee,1950 : 4. (Hagiang)
Papilio agetes agetes ; Metaye,1957 : 83. (N / C)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Shinkai,1999 : 59-60. (N: Tam Dao / S: Bao Lac)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Luong et al.,2004 : 2, 29, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 10, fig.Pa-22,♂. (Lam Dong: Dambri)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 91-92, pl.29, figs.1a♂,1b♂(Un). (N: Hoang Lien; Van Ban; Ba Be; Tam Dao; Cuc Phuong / C: Pu Mat; Vu Quang; Ke Bang; Bach Ma; Kon Cha Rang; Chu Yang Sin; Bi Doup-NuiBa)
Graphium agetes agetes ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 14. (N / C to Lam Dong)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 15♂ 2♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 11♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 11♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chaiyaphum : 10♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 6♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 5♂ (photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Surat Thani : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trang : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 10♂ (incl.photo & photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Houaphan : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 8♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lao Cai : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ha Giang : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is not rare in montane forest at low to high elevations (alt.300m - 2200m) and is frequently found on top of mountains. Males are territorial at hilltops and fly in circles for long hours in their territorial space. Moreover they often come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
The populations from India to Indo-China and W.Malaysia are quite variable and more subject to individual variation than to geographic variation. The black bands tend to decrease from north to south, suggesting that it is a large cline. The taxon iponus cannot be clearly separated from the nominotypical subspecies, as Nishimura,1996 mentioned.
Previously this species was thought to be related to other tailed species in subgenus Pathysa, but the DNA analysis of Makita et al.,2003 showed that it is closely related to the mimetic species of the macareus group. The morphology of the male genitalia supports this relationship too.


Literature

Westwood, J.O.,1841-1845 : Arcana entomologica, or Illustrations of new, rare, and interesting exotic insects.
William Smith, London. 8 vol.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1901 : Zwei neue Papilio aus Indochina.
Soc. ent. 16(12):89-90.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1902 : Neue Papilioformen aus dem Indo-Australischen Gebiet.
Soc. ent. 17(8):57-58.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1903 : Verzeichnis der in Tonkin, Annam und Siam gesammelten Papilioniden und Besprechung verwandter Formen.
Berl. ent. Z. 47(3/4):167-234.

Jordan, K.,1909 : Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde
9:81-88.

Tsukada, E. & Nishiyama, Y.,1980 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Island 1. Papilionidae
459 pp., Plapac co., Ltd. (in Japanese)

Nishimura, M.,1996 : Notes on some Papilionidae from Indo-China. (2).
Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan. 47(1):40-48. (in Japanese)

Makita, H., Shinkawa, T., Kondo, K., Xiang, L. & Nakazawa, T.,2003 :
Phylogeny of the Graphium butterflies inferred from nuclear 28SrDNA and mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences
Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 54(2):91-110.


Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Graphium agetes agetes ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Tak, Thailand.
Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Graphium agetes agetes ♂
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Graphium agetes agetes ♂ Graphium agetes agetes ♂
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama)
Graphium agetes iponus ♂ Graphium agetes iponus ♂
♂, Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan) ♂, Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan)
Graphium agetes iponus ♂ Graphium agetes iponus ♂
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♂, Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan)

1996.10.08 - 2022.09.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.