Graphium xenocles kephisos  (Fruhstorfer, 1902)

Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Up. Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Un. Graphium xenocles kephisos ♀ Up. Graphium xenocles kephisos ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Up. Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Un. Graphium xenocles kephisos ♀ Up. Graphium xenocles kephisos ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Up. Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Un. Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ genitalia Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ genitalia
♂, Ranong, Thailand. ♂ genitalia, Phetchaburi, Thailand.

ON : Papilio xenocles kephisos Fruhstorfer, 1902
OD : Soc. ent. 16(19):145.
TL : Chiem-Hoa, N.Vietnam. (NHML)
Distribution : N.W. to P.Thailand, N. to C.Laos,
N.Vietnam, S.China.
● ssp.kephisos
transition zone of kephisos and lindos
ssp.lindos
Graphium xenocles kephisos Map

Synonym

Papilio xenocles f.temp.neronus Fruhstorfer, 1902 : Soc. ent. 17(10):74. TL. Upper Tonkin.


Type Material Information

kephisos ; ♀, Type (red), #149413, Aug.Sept. Chiem-Hoa, Central-Tonkin. H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio xenocles lindos ; Godfrey,1916 : 112-113. (Phetchaburi River)
Papilio xenocles lindos ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Papilio xenocles kephisos ; Godfrey,1930 : 219. (W: Phetchaburi River; Hot Spring, Me Lamoung)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Pinratana,1977 : 61, fig.P51a♂. (except P)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 34,45, pl.60, figs.50a♂,♀. (Chiang Mai; Kanchanaburi)
Graphium xenocles lindos ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 34,45, pl.61, figs.50b♂,♀. (Ranong)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 64, fig.44,♂. (Umphang: Tha Sai)
Paranticopsis macareus burmensis ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.28, fig.57a♀. (in part)
Paranticopsis xenocles kephisos ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 114, pl.29, figs.P58a♂,♂(Un),♀. ('Khao Yai' [loc.err.])
Paranticopsis xenocles lindos ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 114, pl.29, figs.P58b♂,♀. ('Yala' [loc.err.])
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 135, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Dao; Doi Suthep; Doi Pa Chang; Kaeng Krachan) (in part)
Graphium xenocles lindos ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 135, figs.♀,♀(Un). (Kam Puan) (in part)
Graphium macareus burmensis ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.28,fig.54a♀. (in part")
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 114, pl.29, figs.P55a♂,♂(Un),♀. ('Khao Yai' [loc.err.])
Graphium xenocles lindos ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 114, pl.29, figs.P55b♂,♀. ('Yala' [loc.err.])
Graphium xenocles lindos ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, fig. (Phetchaburi) (accessed: 2022.09.02)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio xenocles f.xenocles ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 151. (Laos)
Papilio xenocles f.xenocles ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 16. (Laos)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 201, pl.25, figs.♂,♀. (Phong Saly; Oudomxay)

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio xenocles kephisos f.temp.kephisos ; Fruhstorfer,1903 : 227-229. (Tonkin: Chiem-Hoa)
Papilio xenocles kephisos ; Jordan,1909 : 105. (Tonkin)
Papilio xenocles f.xenocles ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 151. (Tonkin)
Papilio xenocles f.kephisos ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 151. (Tonkin)
Papilio xenocles f.vern.neronus ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 151. (Tonkin)
Papilio xenocles f.xenocles ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 16. (Tonkin)
Papilio xenocles f.kephisos ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 16. (Tonkin)
Papilio xenocles f.(print.)neronus ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 16. (Tonkin)
Papilio xenocles f.neronus ; Lemee,1950 : 3. (Hagiang)
Papilio xenocles xenocles ; Metaye,1957 : 84. (N / C)
Papilio xenocles kephisos f.vern.neronus ; Metaye,1957 : 84. (N)
Papilio xenocles kephisos f.aest.kephisos ; Metaye,1957 : 84. (N)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 17, figs.5:11,♂,12,♂(Un),10:21(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Shinkai,1999 : 61. (N: Mt.Pia Oac; Tam Dao)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1, 29, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 89-90, pl.28, fig.2a♂. (N & C)
Graphium xenocles kephisos ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 14. (N / C)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 5♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 9♂ 6♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 2♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Ha Giang : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Hoang Lien Son : 2♂ (without date) (NHML).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forest at low to moderate elevations (alt. 20m - 1200m). Males frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water. Females are polymorphic. Both sexes mimicking Danainae species, such as Parantica melaneus or Euploea mulciber and Calinaga sudassana, Calinaginae. They look similar to the model in flight.
The boundary between ssp.kephisos and ssp.lindos seems to be a transition zone containing intermediate individuals. The ratio of both subspecies and their variation depends on the locality. For instance, in N.Thailand, Phrae Province, the population is mostly ssp.lindos, but occasionally intermediate individuals are found. On the other hand, in western part of Chiang Mai, it is mostly ssp.kephisos, with occasional intermediate individuals. Furthermore, in Lak Sao, E.Laos, both subspecies are found almost equally. Further taxonomic study and distributional research are needed.


Literature

Fruhstorfer, H.,1902 : P. xenocles kephisos nov. subspec. P. xenocles lindos nov. subspec.
Soc. ent. 16(19):145-146.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1902 : Neue Papilioformen aus Ostasien.
Soc. ent. 17(10):73-74.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1903 : Verzeichnis der in Tonkin, Annam und Siam gesammelten Papilioniden und Besprechung verwandter Formen.
Berl. ent. Z. 47:167-234.

Jordan, K.,1909 : Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde
9:105-112.


Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂
♂ (left), Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama) ♂ (left) with Calinaga sudassana, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂ Graphium xenocles kephisos ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

1996.10.08 - 2022.09.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.