Papilio bianor triumphator  Fruhstorfer, 1902

Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Un. Papilio bianor triumphator ♀ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♀ Up.
♂ (dsf), Nan, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀ (dsf), Nan, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Un. Papilio bianor triumphator ♀ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♀ Un.
♂ (wsf), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (wsf), Nan, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♀ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♀ Up.
♂ (dsf), Houaphan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀ (wsf), Houaphan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up.
♂ (wsf), Da Nang, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito) ♂ (wsf), Da Nang, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito)
Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up. Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Up.
♂ (wsf), Houaphan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♂ (wsf), Houaphan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio polyctor triumphator Fruhstorfer, 1902
OD : Soc. ent. 17(9):65.
TL : Sikkim. (NHML)
Distribution : Sikkim, Assam to N.Myanmar, N.Thailand,
Laos, Vietnam, S.China. [Cambodia]
● ssp.bianor
ssp.triumphator
ssp.stockleyi
ssp.pinratanai
Papilio bianor triumphator Map

Synonyms

Papilio triumphator ab.mai Tytler, 1912 : J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21(2):590. TL. Naga Hills. (NHML)
Papilio polyctor connectens Mell, 1938 : Deut. ent. Zeit. 1938(2):320-321. TL. Tali ; Chaochow, W.Yunnan. (homonym)
Papilio polyctor kingtungensis Lee, 1962 : Acta ent. Sinica 11(2):139,144, pl.2, figs.3(HT,♂), 5(HT,♂Un). TL. Yunnan. (Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Papilio polyctor xiei Chou, 1994 : in Chou et al., Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium : 150, fig.(HT,♂), 751, fig.5(HT,♂). TL. Mengla, Yunnan. (Entomological Museum, Northwestern Agricultural University, Xhaanxi)


Type Materials Information

mai ; ♂, Type HT (red), #149647, Naga Hills. Type selected by G.T.1941. (NHML, examined)
kingtungensis ; Holotype ♂, 25.May.1956. Yunnan. (Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences)
xiei ; Holotype ♂, 10.Oct.1989. Mengla, Yunnan. Xie Weimin. (Entomological Museum, Northwestern Agricultural University, Xhaanxi)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio polyctor ganesa ; Davidson & Macbeth,1938 : 68-69. (Chiengsen)
Papilio polyctor significans ; Nakano,1990 : 19, fig.3. (Nan)
Papilio bianor gladiator ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 27,43, pl.47, fig.36,♂. (Nan)
Papilio polyctor ganesa ; Nishimura,1997 : 55. (Nan: Doi Phu Kha)
Papilio bianor ganesa ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 94, pl.19, figs.P39,♂,♂(Un),♂[♀],♀. (Nan)
Papilio bianor ganesa ; Ek-Amnuay et al.,2007 : 6. (Nan; 'Chiang Mai: Doi Pha Hom Pok' [loc.err.])
Papilio bianor gladiator ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 128, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Phu Kha)
Papilio bianor gladiator ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 94, pl.19, figs.P36c,♂,♂(Un),♀,♀. (Nan: Doi Phu Kha; 'Chiang Mai: Doi Pha Hom Pok' [loc.err.])

[ LAOS ]
Papilio bianor f.gladiator ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 150. (Thado)
Papilio bianor f.gladiator ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 214. (Thado)
Papilio bianor gladiator ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 47, pl.8, figs.3,♂,4,♂(Un). (Vang Vieng; Phatong; Nam Moh; Nam Ngum Dam)
Papilio polyctor triumphator ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 47, col.pl.11,♂ ; pl.8, figs.5,♂,6,♂(Un),7,♂,8,♂(Un). (Phatong; Nam Moh; Vang Vieng; Muong Kassy)
Papilio polyctor triumphator ; Masui & Uehara,1994 : 8, pl.2, fig.6,♀. (Louang Namtha)
Papilio polyctor ganesa ; Nishimura,1997 : 55. (Viangchan: Phu Kao Kway; Xaignabouri: Doi Pee Ban Nam; Xiang Khouang: Ban Nam Hom; Muang Pang)
Papilio bianor ganesa ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.16,figs.♂,♂,♀,♀ ; pl.17, figs.♂,♀,♂(dsf),♂(dsf,Un),♀(dsf). (Lak Sao)
Papilio bianor gladiator ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 341-346. (Lak Sao; Thabok)
Papilio polyctor gladiator ; Onodera,2009b : 37,38. (Houaphan: Phu Phan)
Papilio polyctor gladiator ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Papilio polyctor ganesa ; Nishimura,1997 : 55, fig.17,♂. ('Phnom Penh')

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio polyctor ganesa ; Nishimura,1997 : 55. ('Cochin China')
'Papilio polyctor ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1. (Cuc Phuong)'
Papilio bianor gladiator ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 67-69, pl.20, figs.c♂,d♀. (C: Phu Hoat; Pu Mat; Vu Quong; Huong Son; Phong Nha-Ke Bang / 'S: Cochinchine') (in part)
Papilio bianor gladiator ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 13. (C) (in part)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Nan : 20♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Luang Nam Tha : 2♂ (photo by K.Phongpiyamit).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Oudomxay : 1♀ (photo by K.Phongpiyamit).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Xieng Khouang : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Xaignabouri : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Vientiane : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 23♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ CAMBODIA ]
"Phnom Penh" : 2♂ (without date) (NHML).


[ VIETNAM ]
Da Nang : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Cochin China ('Nacham') : 2♂ (NHML).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forest at low to moderate elevations. Males form flight paths along streams or forest edges, and frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
Ek-Amnuay,[2007],2012 recorded it from 'Doi Pha Hom Pok, Chiang Mai', however this is considered erroneous location. At least no reliable specimens have been obtained until now. The populations of E.Laos and southern part of N.Vietnam to C.Vietnam are variable and intermediate individuals between ssp.bianor and ssp.triumphator are occasionally seen. It seems a transition zone of both subspecies.
There are several specimens in NHML labeled 'Cochin China'. One of the locations is 'Chapa', which is an error for Sapa, N.Vietnam. The other is 'Nacham', presumably in the northern part of Cochin China, near North Vietnam. In addition, there are two male specimens labeled 'Phnom Penh, Cambodia' which might be an erroneous locality. Therefore, these records are not shown on the map here. Further distributional research is needed.


Literature

Fruhstorfer, H.,1902 : Neue Papilioformen aus dem Indo-Australischen Gebiet.
Soc. ent. 17(9):65-66.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1909 : Lepidopterologisches Pele-Mele. XII. Neue Rhopaloceren von Formosa und den Nachbarlandern.
Ent. Zeit. 22(41):167.

Tytler, H.C.,1912 : Notes on some new and interesting Butterflies from Manipur and the Naga Hills. Part 2.
J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21(2):588-606, pl.B.

Mell, R.E.,1938 : Beitrage zur Fauna Sinica. XVIII. Inventur und okologisches Material zu einer Biologie der Sudchinesischen Lepidopteren.
Deut. ent. Zeit. 1938(2):197-345.

Lee, C.L.,1962 : Some new species of Rhopalocera in China, II.
Acta ent. Sinica 11(2):139-158.

Chou, I. (ed.),1994 : Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium.
2 vols., 854 pp. Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

Nishimura, M.,1997 : Notes on some Papilionidae from Indo-China region (3)
Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan. 48(1):49-62. (in Japanese)

Cotton, A.M., Hu, S.J. & Inayoshi, Y.,2021 : Issues with Papilio bianor gladiator Fruhstorfer,[1902] and ganesa Doubleday,1842 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
Butterflies 87:39-45.


Papilio bianor triumphator ♂ Papilio bianor triumphator ♀
♂, Luang Nam Tha, Laos. (photo by K.Phongpiyamit) ♀, Oudomxay, Laos. (photo by K.Phongpiyamit)
Papilio bianor triumphator ♂
♂, Luang Nam Tha, Laos. (photo by K.Phongpiyamit)

1996.11.04 - 2022.05.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.