Papilio alcmenor alcmenor  Felder & Felder, 1865

Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Up. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Un. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♀ Up. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♀ Un.
♂, Bolikhamxai, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Khammouan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Up. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Un. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♀ Up. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♀ Un.
♂, Khammouan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Khammouan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Up. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Un. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♀ Up. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♀ Un.
♂, Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. ♀ (ab.), Bolikhamxai, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Up. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Un. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Up. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Un.
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♂, Bolikhamxai, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio alcmenor Felder & Felder, 1865
OD : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (1):129-130, pl.20, fig.d♂(Un).
TL : India septentrionalis. (♂, NHML)
Distribution : Nepal, India to Myanmar, N.Thailand (Nan), Laos, Vietnam.
● ssp.alcmenor
ssp.publilius (transition zone to ssp.alcmenor)
ssp.publilius
ssp.?? (not confirmed yet)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor Map

Synonyms

Papilio rhetenor Westwood, 1841 : Arcana Ent. 1(4):59, pl.16, figs.1,1a. TL. Assam. (homonym)
Papilio icarius Westwood, 1848 : Cabinet orient. Ent. :5, pl.2, fig.♀. TL. Assam. (homonym)
Papilio rhetenor turificator Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Ent. Zeit. 22(42):175. TL. Sikkim. (♂♀, NHML)
Papilio rhetenor turificator f.albolunata Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Ent. Zeit. 22(42):175. TL. Sikkim. (♂, NHML)
Papilio rhetenor f.leucocelis Jordan, 1909 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:76. TL. Khasia Hills, Assam. (♂, NHML)


Type Materials Information

alcmenor ; ♂, Type, Sikkim, India. (NHML, examined)
turificator ;
♂, Type, #149327, Marz, April., Sikkim. (NHML, examined)
♀, Type, #149328, Sikkim. (NHML, examined)
albolunata ; ♂, Type, #149326, Sikkim, India. (NHML, examined)
leucocelis ; ♂, Type, Khasia Hills, Assam. (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ LAOS ]
Papilio rhetenor f.rhetenor ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 149-150. (Laos)
Papilio rhetenor f.rhetenor ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 214. (Laos)
Papilio rhetenor f.rhetenor ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 13. (Laos)
Papilio alcmenor rhetenor ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 46. (Vang Vieng)
Papilio alcmenor publilius ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.13, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Lak Sao; Nhahin)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 357-358. (Thabok; Khoun Kham)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ; Onodera,2009b : 41, fig.20,♂. (Khammouan: Nacay)
Papilio alcmenor publilius ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio rhetenor f.rhetenor ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 149-150. (Laos)
Papilio rhetenor f.rhetenor ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 214. (Laos)
Papilio rhetenor f.rhetenor ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 13. (Annam)
Papilio rhetenor rhetenor ; Metaye,1957 : 83. (C)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ; Shinkai,1999 : 54. (N: Mt.Pia Oac; Tam Dao / S: Bao Lac)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 7, figs.Pa-16,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dai Duc Me)
Papilio alcmenor ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 38. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Bach Ma)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 63-64, pl.17, figs.2a♂,2b♂(Un),2c♀. (N: Na Hang; Ba Be / C: Xuang Lien; Pu Hoat; Bu Huong; Pu Mat; Huong Son; Vu Quang; Phong Nha/Ke Bang; Phong Dien; Bach Ma; Ngoc Linh; Kon Cha Rang; Kon Ka Kinh; Chu Yang Sin; Hon Ba; Col de Blao)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 13. (N / C)
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 39, 44, figs.7,♂,7v♂(Un),8,♀,8v♀(Un). (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Nan : 6♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Khammouan : 1♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 10♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Khanh Hoa : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forest at low to moderate levations (alt.400m - 1800m). Males form flight paths along streams or forest edges, and frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water. Males of this subspecies seem to mimic Atrophaneur aidoneus and Atrophaneura varuna astorion, but are not similar in flight. On the other hand, females mimic Byasa dasarada and polyeuctes, closely resembling the models so much that they are indistinguishable in flight.
In Thailand, it is found only in Nan province. In the area East of Chiang Mai city, from Doi Saket dist., Mae On dist. and Wiang Pa Pao to Lampang province, it is generally ssp.publilius, however some intermediate individuals to the nominotypical subspecies are found occasionally. It seems a transition zone of both subspecies.


Literature

Westwood, J.O.,1841-1845 : Arcana entomologica, or Illustrations of new, rare, and interesting exotic insects.
William Smith, London. 8 vol.

Westwood, J.O.,1848 : The Cabinet of Oriental Entomology; a selection of some of the rarer an more beautiful species of insects,
natives of India and the adjacent islands, the greater portion of which are now for the first time deescribed and figured.
London, Smith 4 to : 88 pp, 42 cpl.

Felder, C. & Felder, R.,1865-1875 :
Rhopalocera. In Reiseder Osterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band:
Abtheilung. Wien : vi + 548 + [1] pp in 5 parts, 140 pls.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1909 : Neue asiatische Papilio-Rassen.
Ent. Zeit. 22(42):175-176 ; 22(43):177-179.

Jordan, K.,1909 : Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde
9:65-72.


Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂ Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♂, Nan, Thailand.
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor ♂
2♂ with Papilio memnon, Bolikhamxai, Laos.
(photo by K.Phongpiyamit)

1996.10.02 - 2022.03.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.