Heliophorus indicus  (Fruhstorfer, 1908)

Heliophorus indicus ♂ Up. Heliophorus indicus ♂ Un. Heliophorus indicus ♀ Up. Heliophorus indicus ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Heliophorus indicus ♂ Up. Heliophorus indicus ♂ Un. Heliophorus indicus ♂ Up. Heliophorus indicus ♂ Un.
♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂ (ws), Nan, Thailand.
Heliophorus indicus ♂ Up. Heliophorus indicus ♂ Un. Heliophorus indicus ♂ genitalia Heliophorus indicus ♂ genitalia
♂ (ws), Xieng Khouang, Laos. (photo by H.Onodera) ♂ genitalia, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ON : Ilerda epicles indicus Fruhstorfer, 1908
OD : Ent. Zeit. 22(12):49.
TL : Sikkim. (NHML)
Distribution : Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam to Myanmar,
N.Thailand, Laos, Vietnam.
Heliophorus indicus map

Records taken from Literature

Heliophorus indicus ; Pinratana,1981 : 72, pl.11, figs.26,♂,27,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; 'Loei')
Heliophorus indicus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 592, pl.267, figs.L166,♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Mai; 'Wiang Pa Pao')
Heliophorus indicus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 618, pl.280, figs.L190,♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Mai; 'Wiang pa Pao')
Heliophorus indicus ; Kimura et al.,2014 : 151, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Pha Hom Pok; 'Doi Suthep'; Doi Inthanon)
Heliophorus indicus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Chiang Mai) (accessed: 2023.05.20)

[ LAOS ]
Heliophorus indicus  ssp. ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 73, pl.104, fig.B1,♂(Un). (Luang Prabang)
Heliophorus indicus ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 216. pl.112, figs.♂,♀. (Lak Sao)
Heliophorus indicus ; Onodera,2009b : 37. (Xieng Kouang: Nam Noen; Houaphan: Phu Phan)
Heliophorus indicus ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 52.
Heliophorus indicus ; Onodera,2022 : 84, pl.214, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Houaphan: Phou Pan; Xiengkhouang: Phou Samsoum)

Heliophorus indicus ; Yago et al.,2005 : 366, 369, fig.2,♂,♀,♂(Un), 370, fig.10,(Immature Stages). (Deo Bao Loc)
'Heliophorus ila ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 43. (Thua Thien Hue: A Luoi)'
Heliophorus ila nolus ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,[2007] : 60, figs.L-71,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dai Duc Me; Gung Re)
Heliophorus indicus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 55. (N: Ha Giang / C: Lam Dong)

Specimens Examined

Chiang Mai : 9♂ 1♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

[ LAOS ]
Xieng Khouang : 3♂ (incl. photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Houaphan : 2♂ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 1♂ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


The butterfly is locally not rare in montane forests at high elevations (Alt. 1600 - 1800m) and occurs sympatrically with ila and brahma. Males are territorial on shrubs or undergrowth.
One of the characteristics of this species was considered to be the absence of orange patch on the UpF of males. However, one male from Xieng Khouang, Laos, showed obscure orange patch in spaces 4 and 5 on the UpF. Whether such an individual appears very rarely, or whether it is an aberrantion, further research and collection of materials are needed.
This species, ila and epicles of this region are very similar, and it is difficult to identify them by markings. Examination of genitalia is necessary for accurate identification. It is highly likely that some of the past records misidentify the approximated species. I tentatively treat all populations in this area as indicus, however further taxonomic study is needed.

Enlarged photo of the UpF and genitalia of the above Xieng Khouang specimen
Heliophorus indicus ♂ Heliophorus indicus ♂ Heliophorus indicus ♂ Heliophorus indicus ♂
♂, 2016.10.08, Xieng Khouang, Laos. (photo by H.Onodera & J.Uehara)


Fruhstorfer, H.,1908 : Lepidopterologisches Pele-Mele. I. Neue ostasiatische Rhopaloceren.
Ent. Zeit. 22(12):48-49.

Eliot, J.N.,1963 : The Heliophorus epicles (Godart, 1823) (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) Complex
Entomologist 96(1203):169-180, 14 figs.

Yago, M., Wakabayashi, M., Tanaka, B. & Monastyrskii, A.L.,2005 : Species biodiversity and life histories of the genus Heliophorus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in Vietnam.
Report on Insect Inventory Project in Tropic Asia (TAIIV)(2005):365-370.

Heliophorus indicus ♂ Heliophorus indicus ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂ with Orthomiella rantaizana, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Heliophorus indicus ♂ Heliophorus indicus ♂
♂ (territorial behavior), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

1999.07.11 - 2023.05.31.