Euploea orontobates  Fruhstorfer, 1910

Euploea orontobates ♂ Up. Euploea orontobates ♂ Un. Euploea orontobates ♀ Up. Euploea orontobates ♀ Un.
♂, 2002.12.30. Dambri, Lam Dong, Vietnam.
Holotype of conbuom (photo by K.Saito)
♀, 2003.09.16. Dambri, Lam Dong, Vietnam.
Paratype of conbuom (photo by K.Saito)
Euploea orontobates ♂ Up. Euploea orontobates ♂ Un. Euploea orontobates ♂ Up. Euploea orontobates ♂ Un.
♂, 2003.12.28. Dambri, Lam Dong, Vietnam.
Paratype of conbuom (photo by K.Saito)
♂, Lam Dong, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito)
Euploea orontobates ♂ Up. Euploea orontobates ♂ Un. Euploea orontobates ♂ Up. Euploea orontobates ♂ Un.
♂, 2005.12.31. Dambri, Lam Dong, Vietnam.
Paratype of conbuom (photo by K.Saito)
♂, 2006.08.31. Dambri, Lam Dong, Vietnam.
Paratype of conbuom (photo by K.Saito)
Euploea orontobates ♂ genitalia Euploea orontobates ♂ genitalia Euploea orontobates ♂ genitalia
♂ genitalia, Lam Dong, Vietnam.

ON : Euploea orontobates Fruhstorfer, 1910
OD : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:236.
TL : Chentabun [Chanthaburi], E.Siam. (♂, NHML)
Distribution : S.E.Thailand (Chanthaburi), S.Vietnam.
Euploea orontobates map


Euploea conbuom Saito & Inayoshi, 2006 : Butterflies 44:7-13, figs.1a(HT,♂), 1b(HT,♂Un), 1c(PT,♀), 1d(PT,♀Un), 1e♂genitalia, 1f♂juxta, 1g,scales. TL. Lam Dong, S.Vietnam.

Type Materials Information

orontobates ; Holotype ♂, Type (red), #149811, 01.Jan.1901. Chantabun [Chanthaburi], Siam. Fruhstorfer. designated by A.L.Monastyrskii & R.I.Vane-Wright,2008. (NHML, examined)
conbuom ;
Holotype ♂, 30.Nov.2002. Dambri (Alt. 850m), Bao Loc, Lam Dong, S.Vietnam. (RIEB)
Paratypes : 11♂ 2♀, Lam Dong, S.Vietnam.

Records taken from Literature

Euploea orontobates ; Monastyrskii & Vane-Wright,2009 : 43-44, figs.1a(HT,♂),1b(HT,♂Un),2a♂,2b♂(Un). (Chanthaburi)

Euploea species ; Morishita,1970 : 67-68, figs.18,♂,♀. (Blao; Dinh Quan)
Euploae conbuom ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2007c : 38, figs.D-28,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Madagui)
Euploea orontobates ; Monastyrskii,2011 : 56-57, pl.8, figs.2a♂(Thailand),2b♀,2c♀(Un). (C: Lam Dong / S: Dong Nai)
Euploea orontobates ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 19, pl.2, figs.5a(conbuom,HT,♂),5b(conbuom,HT,♂Un),5c(conbuom,PT,♀). (C: Lam Dong)

Specimens Examined

Chanthaburi : 1♂ (Holotype of Euploea orontobates).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 14♂ 2♀ (incl. Type series of Euploea conbuom).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


This species is quite localized and found in montane forests at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 200 - 850m).
This taxon was described as a distinct species by Fruhstorfer,1910 and was later synonymized with Euploea core in Ackery & Vane-Wright,1984. However, in a re-examination by Monastyrskii & Vane-Wright,2009, this taxon was again recognized as a distinct species, with Euploea conbuom as a synonym.
In Monastyrskii & Vane-Wright,2009, the evidence for orontobates as a separate species is as follows;
"184: Elongate androconial scales in hindwing discal area (as in E.core godartii). E.orontobates does not have any of these elongate, strap-like scales so abundant in core godartii and other members of clade 211.31.
(185): Male lacking androconial brand in forewing cell Cu1b. This loss apomorphy is considered (weakly) characteristic of clade 211.32. which, in addition to E.treitschkei, E.modesta, E.crameri and E.camaralzeman... Such androconia are widespread but not universal in other Euploea, including E.core and most other members of clade 211.31. The condition in E.orontobates might appear to be unique, the brand being present but so reduced as to be readily overlooked.
(194): Posterior margin of male forewing strongly convex (this is the synapomorphy for clade 211.321). E.orontobates fits this character weakly, having the posterior margin more convex than that of E.core godartii, but less convex than in E.treitschkei, E.modesta, E.crameri or E.camaralzeman."

Subsequently, a large number of specimens of Euploea crameri praedicabilis have been obtained from S.E.Thailand and Vietnam in recent years. Examination of these specimens revealed significant variation in the androconial brand and submarginal markings on the UpF. In particular, the UpF of some of the specimens from this region have very faint to distinct brands similar to those of Euploea core. And the posteriro margin of male forewing, as noted in (194), is also found to be highly variable.
Based on this new information, it became clear that the evidence for orontobates as a separate species completely overlapped with the features of crameri and could not be considered as evidence for a separate species. Although it was not possible to examine the male genitalia of orontobates, a detailed comparison of conbuom with crameri showed no significant differences.
For these reasons, I agree that conbuom is a synonym of orontobates, but I suspect that orontobates (conbuom) could be conspecific with crameri (mimietic form to Euploea core f.layardi or special local variant).
It may also be a closely related separate species, so I tentatively treat it as a distinct species here. In any case, further taxonomic research using DNA analysis, including Euploea crameri praedicabilis and the taxon circuita mentioned in the sections on Euploea crameri praedicabilis, is needed.
Incidentally, all specimens shown as Euploea orontobates in Ek-Amnuay,2012, are misidentifications of Euploea core f.layardi.


Fruhstorfer, H.,1910 : 3. Familie: Danaidae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9
225-240. (15.Aug.1910)

Morishita, K.,1970 : The Danaid butterflies of South Viet-Nam.
Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 21(3/4):62-74.

Ackery, P.R. & Vane-Wright, R.I.,1984 : Milkweed Butterflies, Their Cladistics and Biology :
Being an Account of the Natural History of the Danainae, a Subfamily of the Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae
British Museum (Natural History) ; Comstock Pub. Associates [London], Ithaca, N.Y. 425 pp.

Saito, K. & Inayoshi, Y.,2006 : A new species of Euploea Fabricius,1807 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from Vietnam.
Butterflies 44:7-13, figs.1-6.

Monastyrskii, A.L. & Vane-Wright, R.I.,2009 : Identity of Euploea orontobates Fruhstorfer, 1910 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), a milkweed butterfly from Thailand and Vietnam
Zootaxa 1991:43-50.

2007.01.31 - 2023.03.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.