Elymnias hypermnestra violetta  Fruhstorfer, 1902

Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Un.
♂, Chaiyaphum, Thailand. ♀, Phetchabun, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Un.
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♀, Bolikhamxai, Laos. (photo by H.Onodera)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Un.
♂, Chonburi, Thailand. ♀, Bolikhamxai, Laos. (photo by H.Onodera)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Un.
♂, Trat, Thailand. ♀, Trat, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Un.
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand. ♀, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by K.Yano)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀ Un.
♂, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. ♀, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Thailand.

ON : Elymnias undularis violetta Fruhstorfer, 1902
OD : Soc. ent. 16(22):169.
TL : Muok-Lek, Siam. (NHML)
Distribution : C. to S.E.Thailand & P.Thailand
(Phetchaburi - Pracuap Khirikhan), C. to S.Laos.
● ssp.tinctoria
ssp.hainana
ssp.violetta
ssp.meridionalis
ssp.robinsona
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta map

Synonyms

Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂forma.epixantha Fruhstorfer, 1907 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 20(3):178. TL. Bangkok.
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀f.obfuscata Riley, 1932 : J. nat. Hist. Soc. Siam Suppl. 8(4):249. TL. Siam. (NHML)


Type Materials Information

violetta ; 1♂ 1♀, Type (red), Jan. Muoklek. H.Fruhstorfer. (NHML, examined)
obfuscata ; ♀, Type HT (red), May.1931. Sriracha. (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Fruhstorfer,1911 : 375. (Muak Lek; Bangkok; Angkor)
Elymnias hypermnestra undularis ; Godfrey,1916 : 122.
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta f.violetta ; Godfrey,1930 : 255.
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta f.epixantha ; Godfrey,1930 : 255. (Chonburi: Sriracha) (in part)
Elymnias hypermnestra meridionalis ; Godfrey,1930 : 255-256. (Chonburi: Nong Yai Boo)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀f.obfuscata ; Godfrey,1932b : 323. (Chonburi: Sriracha)
Elymnias hypermnestra beatrice ; Davidson & Macbeth,1938 : 72. (Chanthaburi: Khao Sabap)
Elymnias hypermnestra meridionalis ; Pinratana,1988 : 8, pl.3, figs.4c♂,♀ ; pl.4, figs.4c♀,♀. (Chaiyaphum) (in part)
Elymnias hypermnestra discrepans ; Pinratana,1988 : 8. not fig. (Nakhon Ratchasima; Chaiyaphum)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 253, fig.69,♂. (Ubon Ratchathani: Kaeng Tana)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 21. (Mukdahan: Phu Huay Sing; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Nam Tok Kham Cha I; Ban Lao Kram; Ban Na Lak; Ubon Ratchathani: Nam Tok Soi Sawan)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 48. (Mukdahan: Phu Mu; Ubon Ratchathani: Waring Chamrap)
Elymnias hypermnestra meridionalis ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 228, pl.86, figs.S4c♂,♂(Un),♂,♂,♀,♀. (Phu Khieo)
Elymnias hypermnestra discrepans ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 228, pl.86, figs.S4d♀,♀(Un). (Wang Nam Khieo)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; pl.84, figs.40a♀(Trat),♀(Un,Trat). (in part)
Elymnias hypermnestra meridionalis ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 226, pl.85, figs.N40c♂,♂(Un),♂,♀,♀,♀,♀(Un). (Wang Nam Khieo; Phu Khieo)
Elymnias hypermnestra meridionalis ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Prachuap Khiri Khan; Saraburi) (accessed: 2022.01.01)
Elymnias hypermnestra meridionalis ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 162, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Phu Khiewo; Saraburi; Kao Yai; Nakohn Nayok; Wan Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Kao Khiewo; Kao Chamao)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Wei et al.,2017 ; 97, fig.7, E♀. (Chanthaburi)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Wei et al.,2017 ; 97, fig.7, F♀(HT of f.obfuscata). (Sri Racha)

[ LAOS ]
Elymnias migrescens [sic] f.tonkiniana ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 31. (Vientiane)
Elymnias hypermnestra tonkiniana ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 63, not fig. (list only)
Elymnias hypermnestra tonkiniana ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 210, not fig. (list only)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 210, pl.88, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀,♀. (Vang Vieng; Nhahin; Boung Kuang; Vientiane)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Uémura,2003 : 2, fig.6,map. (Saravan)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 44. (Namdhua; Thakhek)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Uémura,2006 : 2, fig.4,map. (Muang Kham; Phong Si; Vieng Thong; Nha Hin; Nha Hin Pass)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Uémura,2011 : 1. (C: Tha Ngone; near Nahin / S: near Phatao - Namho)
Elymnias hypermnestra tonkiniana ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 48.


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Phetchabun : 3♂ 2♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chaiyaphum : 4♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 5♂ 5♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 3♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Pracuap Khirikhan : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Bolikhamxai : 2♀ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is common in secondary forests with palm trees at low to moderate elevations (Alt.10m - 900m).
I followed Wei et al.,2017 and treat the population of this area as ssp.violetta. The female is quite variable. It seems intermediate between surrounding ssp.tinctoria, ssp.meridionaris (red female) and ssp.hainana (blue female). Each subspecies of this species is still being replaced by a more dominant subspecies in many parts of its range, and the distribution range of each subspecies is fluid. For instance, Bangkok is in the distribution area of ssp.violetta considering the distribution pattern, but now ssp.tinctoria can be found there. In the past, ssp.violetta was undoubtedly recorded in the area, and it is thought to have been replaced by ssp.tinctoria. Further study is needed on the classification and relationship of these subspecies.
Female f.obfuscata mimics Danaus melanippus and Euploea eyndhovii (Danainae) very well.


Literature

Fruhstorfer, H.,1902 : Elymnias undularis meridionalis nov. subspec. Elymnias undularis violetta nov. subspec.
Soc. ent. 16(22):169.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1907 : Monographie der Elymniinae.
Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 20(3):157-252.

Riley, N.D.,1932 : Descriptions of New Siamese Rhopalocera.
J. nat. Hist. Soc. Siam Suppl. 8(4):249-254, 1 pl.

Wei, C.H., Lohman, D., Peggie, D. & Yen, S.H.,2017 : An illustrated checklist of the genus Elymnias Hübner,1818 (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).
Zookeys 676:47-152.


Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂
♂, Phetchabun, Thailand. ♂, Phetchabun, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂
♂, Chaiyaphum, Thailand. ♂, Chaiyaphum, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♂ Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ♀
♂, Trat, Thailand. ♀, Trat, Thailand.

2018.09.30 - 2022.01.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © Y.Inayoshi.