Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria  Moore, [1879]

Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Un.
♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Un.
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan), Thailand. ♀, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan), Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Un.
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Un. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♀, Chachoeng Sao, Thailand. (photo by S.Sophonviwatkul)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Up. Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Un.
♂, Bangkok, Thailand.

ON : Elymnias tinctoria Moore, [1879]
OD : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878:826.
TL : Meetan ; Moolai, Tenasserim. (NHML)
Distribution : Myanmar, Thailand, N.Laos,
Langkawi, W.Malaysia (Kedah).
● ssp.tinctoria
ssp.hainana
ssp.violetta
ssp.meridionalis
ssp.robinsona
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria map

Synonym

Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀f.paraleuca Fruhstorfer, 1911 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:375. TL. Burma. (NHML)


Type Materials Information

tinctoria ;
♂, Type (red), Rh5060, Moolai. (NHML, examined) ; ♀, Type (red), Rh5061, Meetan, 3000ft. Apr. (NHML, examined)
paraleuca ; ♀, Type (red), Tenasserim. Fruhstorfer. (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Elymnias hypermnestra undularis ; Godfrey,1916 : 122.
'Elymnias hypermnestra beatrice ; Pendlebury,1923 : 33. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Wat Kiriwong)'
Elymnias hypermnestra meridionalis ; Godfrey,1927 : 122. (N)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta f.epixantha ; Godfrey,1930 : 255. (Prae: Me Song forest; Bangkok; W: Klong Klung) (in part)
'Elymnias hypermnestra discrepans ; Godfrey,1930 : 256. (P: Bangnara)'
'Elymnias hypermnestra discrepans ; Godfrey,1932a : 267. (P)'
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Pinratana,1988 : 8, pl.3, figs.4a♂,♀,♂,♀(var.epixantha). (Ranong; Trang; Songkhla; Yala)
Elymnias hypermnestra meridionalis ; Pinratana,1988 : 8. (Chiang Mai; Bangkok) (in part)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 67, figs.110,♂,111,♀. (Umphang: Tha-Sai; Umphang)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 48, fig.83,♂. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 226, pl.85, fig.S4a♀(f.paraleuca),♀. (Bangkok)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies. figs. (Koh Samui; Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2022.01.01)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 226, pl.84, figs.N40a♂(Malaysia),♂(Un,Malaysia)♀(f.paraleuca),♀(Than To). (in part) (Bangkok) (in part)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 9. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, fig. (Chiang Mai) (accessed: 2022.01.01)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 161-162, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Dao; Doi Suthep; Ban Salok; Thung Saleng Luang; Bangkok; Mae Sohd; Khlong Tariew; Erawan WF; Ka Chong; Sonkhla; Haadjai; Than To WF.)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Wei et al.,2017 ; 96, figs.6, C♂(Bangkok), D♀(Bangkok) ; 97, fig.7, D♂(Chiang Mai)
Elymnias hypermnestra agina ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 256-257, figs.Abb.S-056-S-063, S181-S188. (Phang Nga)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 86. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 63, col.pl.14,♀ ; pl.81, figs.5,♂,6,♂(Un). (Luang Prabang)
Elymnias hypermnestra violetta ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 210, pl.88, fig.♀. (Luang Phrabang)
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 48.


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 5♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 7♂ 4♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 2♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 4♂ 2♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Kanchanaburi : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bangkok : 4♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chachoeng Sao : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.) : 3♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 5♂ 1♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is common in secondary forests with palm trees at low to moderate elevations (Alt.10m - 1000m). Females in flight look very similar to Cethosia (Heliconiinae) and Danaus (Danainae) species, especially Cethosia methypsea, Cethosia cyane and Danaus genutia, Danaus melanippus, depending on the pattern of the individual.
Each subspecies of this species is still being replaced by a more dominant subspecies in many parts of its range, and the distribution range of each subspecies is fluid.
For instance, Bangkok is in the distribution area of ssp.violetta considering the distribution pattern, but now ssp.tinctoria can be found there. In the past, ssp.violetta was undoubtedly recorded in the area, and it is thought to have been replaced by ssp.tinctoria.
Moreover, Pendlebury,1923 recorded ssp.beatrice in Nakhon Sri Thammarat, P.Thailand, however, currently ssp.tinctoria is found there. This is also likely to have been replaced by ssp.tinctoria. Some female examples in Betong, Yala province, most southernmost part of peninsular Thailand, seem to be intermediate between ssp.tinctoria and ssp.beatrice, and it seems to be a transition zone between two subspecies. Godfrey,1930,1932 reported ssp.discrepans in Bangnara, which is likely to be this form.


Literature

Moore, F.,[1879] :
A list of the lepidopterous insects collected by Mr.Ossian Limborg in upper Tenasserim, with descriptions of new species.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(4):821-859, 3 pls.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1911 : 4. Familie: Satyridae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9
369-376. (13.Jun.1911)

Wei, C.H., Lohman, D., Peggie, D. & Yen, S.H.,2017 : An illustrated checklist of the genus Elymnias Hübner,1818 (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).
Zookeys 676:47-152.


Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♀
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂ Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria ♂
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan), Thailand. ♂, Yala, Thailand.

1998.12.04 - 2023.01.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © Y.Inayoshi.