Ixias pyrene verna  H.Druce, 1874

Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Un. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Un. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♀, Lamphun, Thailand.
Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Un. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Un.
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♀, Chanthaburi, Thailand.
Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Up.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Ranong, Thailand. ♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♂, Phuket, Thailand.
Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Un. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Un.
♂, Bin Thuan, Vietnam. ♀, Ranong, Thailand.
Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Un. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Up. Ixias pyrene verna ♀ Up.
♀, Ranong, Thailand. ♀, Trat, Thailand.

f. fruhstorferi
Ixias pyrene verna f.fruhstorferi ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna f.fruhstorferi ♂ Un. Ixias pyrene verna f.fruhstorferi ♂ Up. Ixias pyrene verna f.fruhstorferi ♂ Up.
♂, Champasak, Laos. ♂, Champasak, Laos. ♂, Champasak, Laos.

ON : Ixias verna H.Druce,1874
OD : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874(1):108, pl.16, figs.5,6.
TL : Nahconchaisee, Siam. (NHML)
Distribution : Myanmar (Dawnas, Tenasserim), Thailand, Laos,
Cambodia, C. to S.Vietnam, Langkawi, W.Malaysia (Kedah).
● ssp.yunnanensis
(fruhstorferi) transition zone of yunnanensis and verna
ssp.verna
Ixias pyrene verna map

Synonyms

Ixias pallida Moore, [1879] : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(4):837. TL. Moolai, Tenasserim. (NHML)
Ixias citrina Moore, [1879] : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(4):837. TL. Houndurang source, Tenasserim. (NHML)
Ixias pyrene ♀f.annamitica Fruhstorfer, 1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:158, pl.72a♀. TL. S.Annam. (NHML)
Ixias pyrene salangana Fruhstorfer, 1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:159, pl.72c♂. TL. Salang [Phuket], Siam. (NHML)
Ixias pyrene fruhstorferi Gabriel, 1943 : Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)12(5/6):61. TL. Phuc Son, N.Annam. (NHML)


Type Materials Information

verna ; 1♂ 1♀, Type (red), Nahconchaisee, Siam. (NHML, examined)
citrina ; ♂, Type (red), Upper Tenasserim. (NHML, examined)
pallida ; ♂, Type (red), Moulmein. (NHML, examined)
salangana ; ♂, Type (red), Salanga [Phuket]. (NHML, examined)
annamitica ; ♀, Type (red), Jns. Bay. Miu., Jan. H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)
fruhstorferi ;
♂, Type (HT/red), Rh15039, Nov.-Dez. Phuc-Son, Annam. H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)
♀, Type (AT/red), Rh15040, Nov.-Dez. Phuc-Son, Annam. H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Ixias pyrene verna ; Fruhstorfer,1910 : 158. (Siam)
Ixias pyrene salangana ; Fruhstorfer,1910 : 158. (Salang Is.)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Godfrey,1916 : 115.
Ixias pyrene verna ; Pendlebury,1923 : 27. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Godfrey,1930 : 227-228. (all over)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Godfrey,1931 : 192. (Ko Tao)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Godfrey,1932a : 265. (P)
Ixias verna annamitica ; Davidson & Macbeth,1938 : 71. (N)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Pinratana,1983 : 21, pl.16, figs.37,♂,♀. (Bangkok; Chachoengsao; Chonburi; Kanchanaburi; Phetchabun; Phetchaburi; Prae; Phan Nga; Nakhon Pathom; Prachuap Khiri Khan; Nonthaburi; Nakhon Ratchasima; Nakhon Sri Thammarat; Krabi; Phuket)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Nishimura,2000 : 179-181, figs.59(map),60b(♂genitalia), 35-36(verna,ST,♂), 37-38(verna,ST,♀), 39-40(citrina,ST,♂Un), 41-42(pallida,ST,♂Un), 45-46(salangana,ST,♂), 57(Individual variation). (Chiang Mai: San Sai; Wang Lung; Lamphun: Doi Chang; Lampang: Mae Tha; Mae Mo; Phrae: Wang Chin; Namtok Mae Kam; Tak: Umphang; Phetchaburi: Padeng; Phang Nga: Kampuang; Sa Nangmanora; Phuket: Namtok Kathu; Hat Yai: Namtok Ton Nga Chang; Satun: Thale Ban; Yala: Than To)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 46, fig.37,♂. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 158, pl.51, figs.Pi39a♂,♂,♂(Un),♀(wsf),♀(dsf),♀(dsf),♀(dsf,Un). (in part)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies, figs. (Koh Samui) (accessed: 2022.10.03)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 153, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Phu Kradung; Wan Nam Khiewo; Doi Musso; Sai York Noi; Erawan WF; Kanchanaburi; Ratchaburi; Kaen Krachan; Hua Hin; Key Rap Nam; Ka Chong; Haadjai; Tan To WF.)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 158, pl.51, figs.Pi39a♂,♂,♂(Un),♀(wsf),♀(dsf),♀,♀(Un). (in part)
Ixias pyrene yunnanensis ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.52, figs.Pi39b♀(wsf). (in part)
Ixias pyrene verna ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Sa Kaeo; Ratchaburi; Phetchaburi) (accessed: 2022.10.03)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 197-198, figs.Abb.Pi-072-085. (Phang Nga)

[ LAOS ]
Ixias pyrene f.verna ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 21. (Laos)
Ixias pyrene f.moulmeinesis ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 21. (Laos)
Ixias pyrene f.latifasciata ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 21. (Laos)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : pl.24, figs.5,♂,6,♂(Un),7,♀,8,♀(Un). (no date)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 202, pl.36, figs.♂,♂,♀,♀,♀. (Thakhek; Nhahin; Lak Sao)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Nishimura,2000 : 179-181, fig.59(map). (Vientiane: Ban Nakha; Bolikhamsai: Lak Sao)
Intermediates between latifasciata and verna ; Nishimura,2000 : 181, fig.58. (Kham Muan: Ban Lao; Nakai; Cham Pasak: Ban Bangliang; Namtok Wairushi; Huai Nam Chang)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 39. (Namdhua; Thabeng; Thakhek; Nhahin; Nakai)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Onodera,2009b : 34-35,37,41,42. (Vientiane: Namsong Riverside; Houaphan: Phu Phan; Khammouan: Nacay; Bolikhamxai: Phon Si)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 42.
Ixias pyrene verna ; Onodera,2022 : pl.67, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un), text:17. (Khammouan: Natung; Thakhek)
Ixias pyrene latifasciata ; Onodera,2022 : pl.67, figs.♀,♀(Un), text:17. (Xiengkhouang: Tha) (in part)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Ixias verna ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 219. (Cambodge)
Ixias pyrene f.verna ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 21. (Cambodge)
Ixias pyrene ; Onodera,2009 : 35. (Mondolkiri: Sen Monorom)

[ VIETNAM ]
Ixias pyrene ♀f.annamitica ; Fruhstorfer,1910 : 158. (Annam)
Ixias annamitica ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 219. (Annam)
Ixias pyrene f.annamitica ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 21. (Annam)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Metaye,1957 : 86. (C)
Ixias pyrene annamitica f.♀annamitica ; Metaye,1957 : 86. (C)
[ Ixias pyrene tonkiniana ; Metaye,1958b : 175. (Ben Nom; Trang Bom; Dong Nai: Dinh Quan) ]
Ixias pyrene verna ; Nishimura,2000 : 179-181, figs.59(map), 23-24(fruhstorferi,HT,♂), 25-26(fruhstorferi,AT,♀), 43-44(annamitica,ST,♀). (Khanh Hoa: Nha Trang, Sui Hiep; Nha Trang, Phu Huu)
Ixias pyrene ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 39. (Thua Thien Hue: A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 11, fig.Pi-19,♂. (Bin Thuan: Dong Tien)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2007c : 37, fig.Pi-19,♀. (Bin Thuan: Dong Tien)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 17. (C / S)
Ixias pyrene verna ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 77-78. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Coto; Nui Ket)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Mai (excl. Chiang Dao dist ; Fang dist.) : 10♂ 4♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 10♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Kanchanaburi : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 1♂ 1♀ (photo and photo by M.Hayashi).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sa Kaeo : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 10♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bangkok : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Prachuap Khirikhan : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 7♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phuket : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun : 7♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♀ (photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Champaak : 5♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ CAMBODIA ]
Pnon Penh : 2♂ (NHML).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Bin Thuan : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in secondary and montane forest at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 10 - 800m). Both sexes visit flowers.
The relationship between the white population (verna) and the yellow populations (yunnanensis, latifasciata) is uncertain, including whether they are conspecific, and furthermore, both have the issue of horizontal and vertical distribution.
1. The horizontal distribution: The boundary between ssp.verna and the yellow populations seems to be a transition zone containing intermediate individuals. From the northern part of C.Vietnam to S.Laos, a transitional population of verna and yunnanensis is found, which was designated as fruhstorferi. The examples from Paksong, S.Laos are highly variable and unstable, with various intermediate individuals ranging from fruhstorferi to verna. On the other hand, from Moulmein to Karen Hills, S.Myanmar, a transitional population is also found, which was known as meipona.
2. The vertical distribution: The taxon verna prefers lowland to low-mountain semi-dried areas, whereas yunnanensis inhabits higher elevations and wetter forests. I have seen isolated occurrences of yunnanensis in high elevation areas of the mountains in the distribution range of ssp.verna. On those mountains, verna is found at lower elevations (below 500m) and yunnanensis at higher elevations (1600m), but neither is found at intermediate elevations, and no intermediate individuals have been confirmed until now.
Further distributional research and taxonomic studies including DNA analysis are needed.


Literature

Druce, H.,1874 : A List of the Lepidopterous Insects collected by Mr. L. Layard at Chentaboon and Nahconchaisee, Siam,
with Descriptions of new Species.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874(1):102-109, pl.16, 6 figs.

Moore, F.,[1879] :
A list of the lepidopterous insects collected by Mr.Ossian Limborg in upper Tenasserim, with descriptions of new species.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(4):821-859, 3 pls.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1910 : 2. Familie: Pieridae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9
153-168. (2.Apr.1910)

Gabriel, A.G.,1943 : A revision of the genus Ixias Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).
Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)12(5/6):55-70.

Nishimura, M.,2000 : The geographical races of Ixias pyrene (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) mainly from the continental part of SE Asia, with special reference to intermediates between subspecies latifasciata and verna
Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 51(3):169-184.


Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Ixias pyrene verna ♀
♂ (wsf), Sa Kaeo, Thailand. ♀ (wsf), Nakhon Nayok, Thailand.
Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Ixias pyrene verna ♀
♂ (wsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand. (photo by M.Sugiyama) ♀ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Ixias pyrene verna ♂ Ixias pyrene verna ♀
♂ (dsf), Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. (photo by M.Hayashi) ♀, Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan)

1996.10.31 - 2022.10.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.