Graphium antiphates alcibiades  (Fabricius, 1787)

Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Un. Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♀ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♀ Un.
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Trang, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Un.
♂, Phuket, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♂, Narathiwat, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂, Narathiwat, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ genitalia Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ genitalia
♂, Ranong, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂, Ranong, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂ genitalia, Narathiwat, Thailand.

Graphium antiphates alcibiadesi ♂ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiadesi ♂ Un. Graphium antiphates alcibiadesi ♂ Up. Graphium antiphates alcibiadesi ♂ Un.
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand.
(photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio alcibiades Fabricius,1787
OD : Mantissa Ins. 2:8.
TL : 'Tranquebariae' [loc. err. = Malay Peninsula]. (♂, ZMUC)
Distribution : P.Thailand (Phetchaburi and southward),
W.Malaysia, Singapore, Bintan.
● ssp.nebulosus
transition zone of nebulosus and alcibiades
Graphium antiphates alcibiades Map


Arisbe itamputi tungi ; Page,2020 : 194-196, figs.5e(HT,♂),5f(PT),5g(PT). TL. Taiping, Perak, Malaysia. (ETHZ)

Type Material Information

alcibiades ; Syntypes, 2♂. (ZMUC, photo examined.)
tungi ;
Holotype, ♂, 3.Apr.1976. Sengei Batu Tegeh, Taiping, Perak, Malaysia. (ETHZ)
Paratypes : (36♂ 1♀)
Thailand : 3♂, Ranong; 1♂, Ko Samui; 1♂, Nakhon si Thammarat; 6♂, Phuket; 3♂, Trang;
W.Malaysia : 5♂, Sengei Batu Tegeh, Taiping, Perak; 2♂, Ipoh, Perak; 6♂ 1♀, Jelebu, Negri Sembilan; 1♂, Tapah Hills, Perak; 2♂, Jerantut, Pahang; 4♂, Taman Negara Rompin, Johor;
Singapore : 1♂ ; Indonesia: 1♂, Bintan.

Records taken from Literature

Graphium antiphates itamputi ; Pinratana,1977 : 54, figs.P41b♂,♂(Un). (P)
Graphium antiphates itamputi ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 33,45, pl.58, fig.48b♂. (Ranong; Trang; Yala)
Graphium antiphates pompilius ; Nishimura,1996a : 45-47, figs.23,♂,24,♂. (Nakhon Si Thammarat: Namtok Ka Rom; Phuket: Namtok Tone Sai; Songkhla: Namtok Ton Nga Chang; Yala: Than To)
Graphium antiphates itamputi ; RDPB & DNP,2006-2008 : Butterflies in Hala-Bala Forest, fig.[♂](Un). (Narathiwat: Hala Bala) (last update: 2006.12.31 ; accessed: 2024.04.10)
Pathysa antiphates itamputi ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 112, pl.28, figs.P56b♂,♂(Un). (Ranong)
Graphium antiphates itamputi ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 133, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Khlong Naka; Kam Puan; Ka Chong; Than To WF.) (in part)
Graphium antiphates pompilius ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 112, pl.28, figs.P53,♂(Lower row),♂(Lower row, Un). (Ranong) (in part)
Arisbe antiphates pompilius ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 169-170, figs.Abb.Pa-140-141, 290-306. (Phang Nga)
Arisbe itamputi tungi ; Page,2020 : 194-196. (Ranong; Nakhon si Thammarat; Phuket; Trang) (in part)
Graphium antiphates alcibiades ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2022- : Butterflies of Thailand, fig. (Yala) (accessed: 2023.05.18)

Specimens Examined

Phetchaburi : 12♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 13♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phuket : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trang : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Pattani : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun : 2♂ (photo by E.Ikari and A.Giudici).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 12♂ 1♀ (incl. photo & photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Narathiwat : 6♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


The butterfly is common in montane forests at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 10 - 800m). Males frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
Page,2020 separated itamputi from antiphates based on DNA analysis (Makita et al.,2003, Wilson et al.,2014). Furthermore, he treated alcibiades as the continental subspecies of antiphates, and described Arisbe itamputi tungi for the populations from P.Thailand to Singapore and Bintan.
However, both Makita et al.,2003 and Wilson et al.,2014 made no mention or conclusion about the relationship between antiphates and itamputi. We cannot find any notable differences in the genitalia of each taxon, and there is a transition zone of both taxon in northern part of Peninsular Thailand. Thus, here we provisionally follow the traditional classification. Further taxonomic study is needed.
Cotton,2018 presumed the type locality of alcibiades is somewhere in Malay Peninsula, possibly Phuket, P.Thailand. I agree with his opinion and consider tungi to be a synonym of alcibiades.
The population from Phetchaburi, northern part of Peninsular Thailand is rather variable. Generally ssp.alcibiades, but intermediate individuals between ssp.nebulosus are often found. It seems to be a transition zone between both subspecies.


Fabricius, J.C.,1787 : Mantissa Insectorum sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus genericis,
differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus.
Copenhagen, Christ. Gottl. Proft 8vo 1:xx+348pp ; 2:[2]+382pp

Butler, A.G.,1885 : [ Description of Papilio itamputi ].
In H.O.Forbes, A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago, a narrative of Travel and exploration from 1878-1883.
London : xix + 536pp, 22 pls, 4maps (8vo).

Fruhstorfer, H.,1909 : Neue Papilioniden des indo-australischen Faunengebietes.
Ent. Zeit. 22(41):169-170.

Jordan, K.,1909 : Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde

Nishimura, M.,1996 : Notes on some Papilionidae from Indo-China. (2).
Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan. 47(1):40-48. (in Japanese)

Makita, H., Shinkawa, T., Kondo, K., Xing, L. & Nakazawa, T.,2003 :
Phylogeny of the Graphium butterflies inferred from nuclear 28S rDNA and mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences.
Trans. lepid. Soc. Jap. 54(2):91–110.

Wilson, J.J., Karen-Chia, H.M., Sing, K. & Azirun, M.,2014 :
Towards resolving the identities of the Graphium butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) of Peninsular Malaysia.
J. Asia Pac. Entomol. 17: 333–338.

Cotton, A.M.,2018 : Confirmation of the true identity of Papilio alcibiades Farbicius, 1787 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
Butterflies 79:11-17.

Page, M.G.P.,2020 : Notes on Arisbe (Pathysa) antiphates (Cramer, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) and its allies
Nachr. ent. Ver. Apollo, N.F. 40(3/4):187-202.

Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂ Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂
♂, Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan) ♂, Satun, Thailand. (photo by A.Giudici)
Graphium antiphates alcibiades ♂
♂, Yala, Thailand.

2014.07.19 - 2024.04.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.