Graphium sarpedon luctatius  (Fruhstorfer, 1907)

Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Un. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♀ Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♀ Un.
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Ranong, Thailand.
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Un. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♀ Up.
♂, Sekong, Laos. ♂, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Bangkok, Thailand.
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Un. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Un.
♂, Ninh Binh, Vietnam. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♂, Dalat, Vietnam. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ ab. Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ ab. Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ ab. Up. Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ ab. Up.
♂(ab.), Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♂(ab.), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂(ab.), Tak, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio sarpedon luctatius Fruhstorfer, 1907
OD : Ent. Zeit. 21(30):183.
TL : Borneo (♂, NHML).
Distribution : Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Myanmar, Thailand,
Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, W. & S.Yunnan, Langkawi, W.Malaysia,
Tioman, Aur, Singapore, Banggi, Borneo, Karimata, Natuna.
● ssp.luctatius
ssp.sarpedon
ssp.islander
Graphium sarpedon luctatius Map

Synonyms

Papilio sarpedon melas Fruhstorfer, 1907 : Ent. Zeit. 21(30):183. TL. Tonkin ; Tenasserim. (homonym)
* Graphium corbeti Toxopeus, 1951 : Idea 8:63. (replacement name for Papilio sarpedon melas)


Type Materials Information

luctatius ; ♂, Type (red), Nord-Borneo, Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)
melas ; ♂, Type, #149392, Aug.-Sep. Chiem-Hoa, C.Tonkin. Fruhstorfer. (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio sarpedon sarpedon ; Fruhstorfer,[1903] : 213-217. (Siam)
Papilio sarpedon sarpedon ; Godfrey,1916 : 112.
Papilio sarpedon sarpedon ; Pendlebury,1923 : 24. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Lan Saka)
Papilio sarpedon sarpedon ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Papilio sarpedon sarpedon ; Godfrey,1930 : 217. (all over)
Papilio sarpedon sarpedon ; Godfrey,1932a : 264. (P)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Pinratana,1977 : 55, figs.P43a,♂,♂(Un). (all over)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Pinratana,1977 : 55, fig.P43b(ab.). (Chiang Mai)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 35,46, pl.64, figs.55,♂,♂(ab.). (every where)
Graphium sarpedon corbeti ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 46, fig.10♂. (Ubon Ratchathani: Phu Pung; Phu Chong Na Yoi)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 118, pl.31, figs.P63a,♂,♂(Un). (Khao Yai; Chonburi; Chiang Mai)
Graphium sarpedon corbeti ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 118, pl.31, fig.P63b,♂(ab.). (Ubon Ratchathani; Nan)
Graphium sarpedon corbeti ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 137, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (Doi Ankaan; Phu Khiewo; Sarika; Nakohn Nayork; Khao Yai; Wan Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Khao Khiewo; Mae Sohd; Doi Musso; Kaeng Krachan)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Les Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, fig. (Koh Samui; Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2022.06.01)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 137, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Khlong Naka; Ka Chong; Than To WF.)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 118, pl.31, figs.P60,♂,♂(Un);♂(ab.). (Khao Yai; Chonburi; Chiang Mai; Doi Phu Kha)
Graphium sarpedon corbeti ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Page & Treadaway,2013 : 230-231. (Thailand)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs., Early Stages. (Saraburi; Nakhon Ratchasima) (accessed: 2022.06.01)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 163, figs.Abb.Pa-111-114,274-284. (Phang Nga)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 87. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 47, pl.9, figs.5,♂,6,♂(Un). (Vientiane; Luang Prabang)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 201, pl.26, figs.♂,♂(dsf),♂(ab),♂(ab). (Lak Sao)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 39. (Thabok)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 39. (Thabok)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Onodera,2009b : 34-35,38. (Vientinane: Namsong Riverside; Houaphan: Phu Phan)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 42.
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Page & Treadaway,2013 : 230-231. (Laos)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs.♂,♂. (Botum Sakor NP.)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Page & Treadaway,2013 : 230-231. (Cambodia)

[ VIETNAM ]
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 17, figs.4:16♂,17♂(Un),18♀, 9:13(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Shinkai,1999 : 62. (S: Bao Lac) (in part)
Graphium sarpedon ; Vu,2003 : 56. (Phu Quoc)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1, 27, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Graphium sarpedon ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 38. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 10, figs.Pa-28,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri ; Bao Loc)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 79-80, pl.25, fig.2,♂. (throughout the country)
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ; Page & Treadaway,2013 : 230-231. (Vietnam)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 39. (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 14. (N / C / S)
Graphium sarpedon sarpedon ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 77. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Ket)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 11♂ 1♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 1♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 5♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 3♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bangkok : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 7♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 6♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Xieng Khouang : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 20♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 14♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sekong : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Ninh Binh : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Dalat : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 1♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is very common in secondary and montane forest at low to high elevations (alt.10m - 1800m) and is frequently found on top of mountains. Males are territorial on trees at hilltops and fly in circles for long hours in their territorial space, and often come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
The populations from P.Thailand (south of Phetchaburi) to Malaysia and Borneo are the same taxon. It has no seasonal form, and A generally smaller size and shorter forewing than ssp.sarpedon. The populations of the continental area have seasonal forms. The dry season form is indistinguishable from ssp.luctatius from Sundaland. The wet season form is larger and tends to have a thinner discal blue band, but it is rather variable and is impossible to clearly distinguish from ssp.luctatius. In some parts of N.Vietnam, Laos and Yunnan, both ssp.sarpedon and ssp.luctatius, and intermediate individuals occasionally occur together and are thought to be a transition zone.
Page & Treadaway,2013 separated the populations in India (Sikkim, Assam), Myanmar (Kachin) and China (S.W.Yunnan) as ssp.sirkari, however it is also highly variable and is more subject to seasonal and individual variation than geographic variation, and cannot be clearly separated from ssp.luctatius in the continental area. It is considered to be a synonym of ssp.luctatius, but the holotype may belong to a different species, Graphium septentrionicolus, which is pending resolution. Further taxonomic study and distributional research are needed.


Literature

Linnaeus, C.,1758 : Systema naturae per regna tria naturae,secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis.
Holmiae, Laurentil Salvii. (Edition 10). 1(Animalia):[iv]+824pp.

Rousseau-Decelle, G.,1947 : Contribution a letude des Papilio de la faune Indo-Oceanienne (Lep. Papilionidae)
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:128-133.

Page, M.G.P. & Treadaway, C.G.,2013 : Speciation in Graphium sarpedon (Linnaeus) and allies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera: Papilionidae)
Stutt. Beit. Natur. Serie A, Neue Ser. 6:223-246.


Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂
♂ (ws), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂ Graphium sarpedon luctatius ♂
♂ with G. chironides, Chiang Mai, Thailand. 4♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand.

1996.10.06 - 2022.06.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.