Papilio memnon agenor  Linnaeus, 1758

Papilio memnon agenor ♂ Up. Papilio memnon agenor ♂ Un. Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Up. Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Rai, Thailand.
Papilio memnon agenor ♂ Up. Papilio memnon agenor ♂ Up. Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Up. Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Up.
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♂, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Up. Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Up. Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Up. Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Un.
♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand.

ON : Papilio agenor Linnaeus, 1758
OD : Syst. nat. (ed. 10) 1:460.
TL : 'Asia'.
Distribution : Nepal, India to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos,
Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Hainan, Langkawi, W.Malaysia,
Tioman, Singapore.
Papilio memnon agenor Map

Synonyms

Papilio androgeos Cramer, 1776 : Uitl. Kapellen 1(8):142, pl.91, figs.A♂,B♂(Un). TL. China.
Papilio alcanor Cramer, 1777 : Uitl. Kapellen 2(9-16):107, pl.166, fig.A♀. TL. China.
Papilio esperi Butler, 1879 : Trans. linn. Soc. Lond. (2) Zool. 1:553, pl.68, fig.7,♀. TL. Malacca ; Penang. (♀, NHML)
Papilio phoenix Distant, 1885 : Rhop. malayana : 340, pl.27, fig.7,♀. TL. Province Wellesley, Malay Pen. (♀, NHML)
Papilio cilix Distant, 1885 : Rhop. malayana 340-341, pl.29, figs.4,♂,5,♀. TL. Malacca, Malay Pen. (♂♀, NHML) (homonym)
Papilio androgeos var.depelchini Robbe, 1892 : Annls. Soc. ent. Belg. 36:125. TL. Kurseong, Sikkim. (♂)
Papilio memnon agenor ♂ab.primigenius Rothschild, 1895 : Novit. zool. 2(3):319. TL. Sikkim ; Khasia Hills. (♂, NHML)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀ab.butlerianus Rothschild, 1895 : Novit. zool. 2(3):320. (♀)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀ab.distantianus Rothschild, 1895 : Novit. zool. 2(3):320. TL. India ; Burma ; Siam ; Malay Pen ; Hainan. (♀)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀ab.vinius Fruhstorfer, 1902 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 15:307. TL. Malay Pen. (♀)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀f.rhetenorina Jordan, 1909 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:72. TL. N.India. (♀, NHML)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀f.phoeniciana Strand, 1916 : Lep. Niepelt. (2):25, pl.13, fig.8,♀. TL. Sikkim. (♀, NHML)
Papilio memnon ab.♀aphrodite Rober, 1927 : Int. ent. Z. 21(13):97. TL. Naga Hills. (♀)
Papilio memnon aurantiaca Rousseau-Decelle, 1933 : Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 38(17):273. TL. Tonkin ?.(♂) (homonym).
Papilio memnon agenor ab.pohli Dufrane, 1946 : Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:116. TL. India. (♂)
Papilio memnon f.indiv.♂coeruleocinetus Rousseau-Decelle, 1947 : Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:129. TL. Hoa Binh, Tonkin.(♂)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀f.tanahsahi Eliot, 1982 : Malay Nat. J. 35:179. TL. Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. (♀, NHML)
Papilio memnon agenor ♂f.syedzahiruddini Tung, 1982 : Tokurana 4:59, pl.9, figs.1♂,2♂(Un). TL. 17th Mile, Cameron Highlands, Perak. (♂, in coll. V.W.Y.Tung)


Type Materials Information

esperi ; ♀, Type (red), Rh.11024, Malacca. Pinwell. (NHML, examined)
phoenyx ; ♀, Province Wellesley. (NHML, examined)
cirix ; ♂, Malacca. (NHML, examined) ; ♀, Malacca. (NHML, examined)
primigenius ; ♂, Apr.1889. Khasi Hills, W.A.Hamilton. (NHML, examined)
rhetenorina ; ♀, Cherra Punji. (NHML, examined)
phoeniciana ; ♀, Type HT (red), Sikkim. Strand det. (NHML, examined)
tanahsahi ; ♀, Holotype, 22.Feb.1975. Ulu Groh 800 ft, Gopeng, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. (NHML)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio memnon agenor ; Fruhstorfer,[1903] : 174. (Siam)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Godfrey,1916 : 110.
Papilio memnon agenor ; Pendlebury,1923 : 24. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Tai Sai River; Khao Ram)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Godfrey,1930 : 213-214. (all over)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Godfrey,1932a : 264. (P)
Papilio memnon ♀f.alcanor ; Davidson & Macbeth,1938 : 68. (Lampang: Me Htam Forest; Paknampoh)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Pinratana,1977 : 41, fig.P29,♂. (all over)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀f.distantianus ; Pinratana,1977 : 41, fig.P29,♀. (all over)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀f.esperi ; Pinratana,1977 : 42, fig.P29,♀. (Yala)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀f.butlerianus ; Pinratana,1977 : 42, fig.P29,♀. (Trang; Yala)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀f.agenor ; Pinratana,1977 : 43, fig.P29,♀. (all over)
Papilio memnon agenor f.agenor ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24-25,43, pl.39 figs.31,♂,♂(variation) ; pl.40, fig.31,♀. (Chiang Mai; Nakhon Nayok; Chanthaburi; Kanchanaburi; Bangkok; Ratchaburi; Trang)
Papilio memnon agenor f.distantianus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24-25,43, pl.40, fig.31,♀. (Nakhon Nayok; Ratchaburi; Ranong; Trang)
Papilio memnon agenor f.esperi ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24-25,43, not fig. (list only)
Papilio memnon agenor f.butlerianus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24-25,43, pl.41, fig.31,♀. (Ranong; Yala)
Papilio memnon agenor f.thetenorina ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24-25, pl.41, fig.31,♀. (no data)
Papilio memnon agenor f.vinius ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24-25, pl.42, fig.31,♀. (no data)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24-25, pl.42, fig.31,Gynandromorph.
Papilio memnon agenor ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 251, fig.41,♀. (Mukdahan: Phu Mu; Phu Shang)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 16. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Huay Sing; Ban Na Lak; Ban Gok Tum; Ubon Ratchathani: Kaeng E-Keow)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 45-46. (Ubon Ratchathani: Kaen Tana; Mukdahan: Phu Hin Khan; Nam Tok Tad Ton)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 64, fig.42,♂. (Umphang)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 46, fig.29,♂. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 84, pl.13, figs.P30,♂,♂(Un),♂♀(Gynandromorph) ; pl.14, figs.30,♀(f.agenor),♀(f.agenor),♀(f.distantianus),♀(f.distantianus),♀(f.alcanor),♀(f.rhetenorina),♀(f.butlerianus),♀(f.esperi). (Chiang Mai; Chanthaburi; Ranong; Yala)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies, figs. (Koh Samui) (accessed: 2022.01.19)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 126, figs.♂,♂(Un); f.butreianus♀,♀(Un); f.vinus♀,♀(Un); f.agenor♀,♀(Un); f.distantianus♀,♀(Un). (Maethro; Bang Salok; Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Khiewo; Khao Yai; Sarika; Nakohn Nayork; Wan Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Kratchin WF; Khao Khiewo; Khao Phang WF; Sai York Noi; Kuawai Yai; Khlong Naka; Kam Puang; Ka Chong; Satun; Thaleban; Than To WF.)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 84, pl.13, figs.P28,♂,♂(Un),♂♀(Gynandromorph) ; pl.14, figs.28,♀(f.agenor), ♀(f.agenor),♀(f.distantianus),♀(f.distantianus),♀(f.alcanor),♀(f.rhetenorina),♀(f.butlerianus),♀(f.esperi). (Chiang Mai; Chanthaburi; Ranong; Yala)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Papilio memnon agenor ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Phetchabun; Sa Kaeo; Phetchaburi) (accessed: 2022.01.19)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 160-161, figs.Abb.Pa-095-106,242-259. (Phang Nga)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 87. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio memnon agenor ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 46, pl.6, figs.3♂,4♂(Un),5,♀,6,♀(Un),7,♀,8,♀(Un). (Luang Prabang; Vientiane; Simouang; Tha Ngone; Ban Houei Sai; Nam Moh; Nam Ngum Dam)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.14, figs.♂,♂(Un) ; pl.15, figs.♀(f.agenor),♀(f.distantianus). (Thabok; Luang Phrabang; Muang Khouang)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 38-39. (Namdhua; Thakhek)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 359-361. (throughout Laos)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Onodera,2009b : 34-35. (Vientinane: Namsong Riverside)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Papilio memnon agenor ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Botum Sakor NP.)
Papilio memnon ; Onodera,2007 : 26,27, fig.7♂. (Rattanakiri: Ou Chum; Siem Reap: Phnum Kuhlen)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio agenor ; Joannis,1901 : 333. (Tonkin: Cao Bang)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Fruhstorfer,[1903] : 174. (Tonkin: Chime-Hoa / Annam: Xom-Gom; Phuc-Son)
Papilio agenor ; Lemee,1950 : 3. (Hagiang; Langson)
Papilio memnon f.♀.alcanor ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 149. (N.Tonkin)
Papilio memnon f.♀.alcanor ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 214. (N.Tonkin)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Metaye,1957 : 83. (N / C / S)
Papilio memnon agenor f.♀.agenor ; Metaye,1957 : 83. (N)
Papilio memnon agenor f.♀.alcanor ; Metaye,1957 : 83. (N / C / S)
Papilio memnon agenor f.♀.distantianus ; Metaye,1957 : 83. (N / C / S)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 17, figs.4:6,♂,7,♂(Un),8,♀, 9:9(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Shinkai,1999 : 55. (N: Tam Dao / S: Bao Lac)
Papilio memnon ; Vu,2003 : 56. (Phu Quoc)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1, 24, figs.♀,♀(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 7, figs.Pa-18,♂,♀,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Gung Re; Bao Loc; Dai Duc Me; Madagui; Dong Nai: Thac Mai; Bin Thuan: Dong Tien; Ta Cu; Ho Chi Minh)
Papilio memnon ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 38. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 61-62, pl.16, figs.a♂,b♀(f.distantianus),c♀(f.alcanor),d♀(f.agenor),e♀(f.agenor),f♀(f.agenor). (throughout Vietnam)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 13. (N / C / S)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 39. (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Papilio memnon agenor ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 77. (S: Nui Cam)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 1♂ 3♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 6♂ 6♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 2♂ 3♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 3♂ 3♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Uttaradit : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chaiyaphum : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 5♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.) : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 5♂ 4♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Xieng Khouang : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 12♂ 2♀ (incl.photo by K.Phongpiyamit).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Vientiane : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 12♂ 16♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 1♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is very common in secondary and montane forest at low to high elevations (Alt.10m - 1600m) and it is often seen in urban areas. Males form flight paths along streams or forest edges, and frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
The female is polymorphic, with very variable, and mimics various species of Troides, Atrophaneura (especially varuna and nox) and Losaria doubledayi etc.


Literature

Linnaeus, C.,1758 : Systema naturae per regna tria naturae,secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis.
Holmiae, Laurentil Salvii. (Edition 10). 1(Animalia):[iv]+824pp.

Cramer, P.,1775-1780 :
De uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America. Papillons exotiques des trois parties du monde l'Asie, l'Afrique et l'Amerique.
Amsteldam, S.J.Baalde; Barthelemy Wild and J. Van Schoonhoven & Comp.
1(1/7):i-xxx, 1-16, 1-132, pls.1-84 ([31 December]1775), (8):133-155, pls.85-96 (1776); 2(9/16):1-151, pls.97-192 (1777); 3(17/22):1-128, pls.193-264 (1779), (23/24):129-176, pls.265-288 (1780); 4(25/26):1-28, pls.289-304 (1780)

Butler, A.G.,[1879] : The Butterflies of Malacca.
Trans. linn. Soc. Lond., (2)Zool. 1(8):533-568, pl.68,69.

Distant, W.L.,1882-1886 : Rhopalocera Malayana : a Description of the Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula.
London, Author, Penang, Logan : xvi+482+[4]pp, 46 pls.

Robbe, H.,1892 : Insectes du Bengale occidental.
Liste d'une collection de Lepidopteres recueillis au Bengale occidential; avec une description d'une variete nouvelle et quelques considerations sur des especes connues.
Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 36:122-131.

Rothschild, L.W.,1895 : A revision of the Papilios of the Eastern Hemisphere, exclusive of Africa.
Novit. zool. 2(3):167-463, pl.4.

Moore, F.,1901-1902 : Lepidoptera Indica. vol.V. Rhopalocera, Family Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, Papilionidae.
5:1-96, 1901; 97-225, 1902. L.Reeve & Co., London.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1902 : Neue Papilioformen und andere Lepidopteren aus Ost-Asien und dem malayischen Archipel.
Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 15:306-315.

Strand, E.,1914-1916 : Lepidoptera Niepeltiana.
Abbidungen und Beschreibungen neuer und wenig bekannter Lepidoptera aus der Sammlung W.Niepelt.
Leipzig, Druck von Urban 4to (1):1-65, pls.1-12(1914); (2):[4]+1-27pp, pls.13-17(1916).

Rober, J.,1927 : Neue exotische Falter.
Int. ent. Z. 21(13):97-100.

Rousseau-Decelle, G.,1933 : Notes sur queques formes nouvelles des genres Papilio et Charaxes. (Lep.)
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 38(17):269-273.

Dufrane, A.,1946 : Papilionidae
Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:101-122.

Rousseau-Decelle, G.,1947 : Contribution a letude des Papilio de la faune Indo-Oceanienne (Lep. Papilionidae)
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:128-133.

Eliot, J.N.,1982 : On three swallowtail butterflies from Peninsular Malaysia.
Malay Nat. J. 35:179-182.

Tung, V.W.Y.,1982 : Notes on variant forms of Malaysian Butterflies
Tokurana (Acta Rhopalocera) 4:57-64, 3 pls.


Papilio memnon agenor ♂ Papilio memnon agenor ♀
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Papilio memnon agenor ♂ Papilio memnon agenor ♀
♂, Chaiyaphum, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand.
Papilio memnon agenor ♂ Papilio memnon agenor ♀ with ♂
♂, Lampang, Thailand. ♀ with ♂, Yala, Thailand.
Papilio memnon agenor ♀ Papilio memnon agenor ♀
♀, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Bolikhamxai, Laos. (photo by K.Phongpiyamit)

1996.10.02 - 2022.03.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.