Papilio polytes romulus  Cramer, 1775

Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un.
♂, Songkhla, Thailand. ♀, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up.
♂, Phetchabun, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un.
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Chiang Rai, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un.
♂ (var.), Chanthaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Chonburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un.
♀, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Khammouan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio romulus Cramer, [1775]
OD : Uitl. Kapellen 1:67, pl.43, fig.A♀.
TL : "Côtes de Coromandel & de Ceylon" [S.E.India & Sri Lanka].
Distribution : Sri Lanka, Nepal, India to Myanmar,
Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S.Yunnan,
Langkawi, W.Malaysia, Tioman, Aur, Singapore.
● ssp.romulus
hybrid zone of latreilloides and polytes
Papilio polytes romulus Map

Synonyms

Papilio mutius Fabricius, 1793 : Ent. syst. 3(1):3. TL. "Tranquebariae" [Tharangambadi, S.E.India]. (♀, ZMUC)
Papilio cyrus Fabricius, 1793 : Ent. syst. 3(1):7. TL. "[unknown]" (♀, ZMUC)
Papilio astyanax Fabricius, 1793 : Ent. syst. 3(1):13. TL. India. (homonym)
Princeps heroicus stichius Hübner, [1808] : Samml. exot. Schmett. 1:pl.[112], figs.1,♀,2,♀(Un). TL. [not stated].
Papilio polytes var. ceylanicus Felder & Felder, 1864 : Verh. zool.-boot. Ges. Wien. 14:319,367. TL. "Ceylon (Rambodde)" [Ramboda, Sri Lanka]. (♀, NHML)
Papilio polytes pammon f. cyroides Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Ent. Zeit. 22(43):178. TL. Sikkim. (♀, NHML) (IFS)
Papilio polytes neomelanides Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Ent. Zeit. 22(43):178. TL. Perak ; Singapore. (♂♀)
Papilio polytes ♀f. rubida Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Ent. Zeit. 22(43):179. TL. Malabar [S.W.India]. (♀, NHML) (IFS)
Papilio chalcas Fabricius, 1938 : in Bryk. Syst. Glossat. :24. TL. Asiae Chalcas. (homonym)
Papilio chalcaevorus Fabricius, 1938 : in Bryk. Syst. Glossat. :24. TL. Asiae Chalcas.
Papilio polytes romulus ♂ab. astreans Jordan, 1909 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:61. TL. S.India. (♂)
Papilio polytes ab. chrysos Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912 : Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912(11):247. TL. "Cambodge, Pnom-Penh" [Phnom Penh, Cambodia]. (♂, MNHN) (IFS)
Papilio polytes romulus f. joannisi Dufrane, 1946 : Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:116. TL. Tonkin. (♂) (IFS)
Papilio polytes romulus ab. obliterata Dufrane, 1946 : Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:116. TL. Hoa Binh, Tonkin. (♂) (IFS)
Papilio polytes romulus ab. coomani Dufrane, 1946 : Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:116. TL. Hoa Binh, Tonkin. (♀) (IFS)
Papilio polytes romulus f.indiv.♀ rufopalmata Rousseau-Decelle, 1947 : Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:129. TL. Naga Hills, Assam.(♀) (IFS)
Papilio polytes romulus ♂f. abdulazizia Tung, 1982 : Tokurana 4:58-59, pl.10, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un). TL. 7th Mile, Cameron Highlands, Perak, [Malaysia]. (♂, in coll. V.W.Y.Tung) (IFS)


Type Materials Information

mutius ; 3♀, Syntypes, det. R.I.Vane-Wright,1977 (ZMUC, photo examined)
cyrus ; ♀, Type, det. R.I.Vane-Wright,1977 (ZMUC, photo examined)
ceylanicus ; ♀, Syn or holotype, Rambodde. det. R.I.Vane-Wright,1979 (NHML, examined)
cyroides ; ♀, Type (red), Darjeeling, Sikkim. (NHML, examined)
rubida ; ♀, Type (red), Malabar, India. (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1916 : 110.
Papilio polytes polytes ; Pendlebury,1923 : 24. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Tai Sai River; Wat Kiriwong; Khao Ram)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1930 : 213. (all over)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1931 : 191. (Ko Tao)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1932a : 264. (P)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Pinratana,1977 : 39, figs.P28,♂,♀(f. cyrus), ♀(f. polytes) ; 40, fig.P28,♀,♀(ab.). (all over)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24,43, pl.38, figs.30,♂,♀(f. polytes),♂(Un). (every where)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 251, fig.40,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Pha Thaep; Ban Naudom)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 16. (Mukdahan: Nam Tok Tad Ton; Phu Mu; Ban Na Lak; Ubon Ratchathani: Kaeng Tana; Kaeng E-Keow)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 45. (Ubon Ratchathani: Phu Chong Na Yoi; Phu Pung; Don Far Huan; Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Hin Khan; Phu Huai Sing; Nam Tok Tad Ton)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 64, fig.43,♂. (Umphang)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 46, fig.28,♂. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 82, pl.12, figs.P29,♂,♂(Un),♂ ; pl.13, figs.29,♀,♀(Un)(f. cyrus), ♀,♀(Un)(f. polytes). (Pathum Thani; Chiang Dao; Trat)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Koh Samui) (accessed: 2022.01.19)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 125, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un); f. cyrus♀,♀(Un); f. polytes♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Suthep; Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Kradung; Phu Khiewo; Khao Yai; Sarika; Nakohn Nayork; Wan Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Kratchin WF; Khao Phoon; Pliewn WF; Khao Khiewo; Bang Phra; Bangkok; Erawan WF; Kuwai Yai; Kaeng Krachan; Ka Chong; Sai Kao WF; Sonkhula; Haadjai; Than To WF.)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 82, pl.12, figs.P27,♂,♂(Un),♂ ; pl.13, fig.27,♀,♀(Un)(f. cyrus), ♀,♀(Un)(f. polytes). (Pathum Thani; Chiang Dao)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Papilio polytes romulus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Phetchabun; Sa Kaeo; Saraburi; Bangkok; Chonburi; Chachoengsao; Phetchaburi; Nakhon Si Thammarat; Yala) (accessed: 2023.05.16)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 159-160, figs.Abb.Pa-089-094,206-241. (Phang Nga)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 87. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio polytes romulus ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 46, pl.7, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un),3,♀,4,♀(Un). (LTN; Vientiane; Luang Prabang; Ban Houei Sai; Nam Ngum Dam)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.12, figs.♂,♂,♂(Un),♀. (Vientiane; Nam Dhua; Lak Sao; Thakhek)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 38. (Namdhua)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 354-356. (Thabok; Hinboun; Koun Ngun)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.
Papilio polytes romulus ; Onodera,2022 : 6, pl.25, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Bolikhamxai: Lak Sao; Luang Phabang: Thapen)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Papilio polytes ab. chryson ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 149. (Cambodge)
Papilio polytes ab. chryson ; Vitalis,1919 : 214. (Cambodge)
Papilio polytes ab. chryson ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 13. (Cambodge)
Papilio polytes ; Onodera,2007 : 23, fig.6,♂. (Rattanakiri: Kalai)
Papilio polytes ; Onodera,2008 : 60,61. (Mondolkiri: Romonea; Bousra)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Chartier & Kosterin,2022 : 113. (Kep; Koh Kong; Kandal; Mondulkiri; Phnom Penh; Preah Sihanouk; Pursat; Ratanakiri; Siem Reap)

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1919 : 464. (S: Daban)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Moulton,1923 : 132. (Pulo Condore)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Metaye,1957 : 82. (N / C / S)
Papilio polytes romulus f.♀ romulus ; Metaye,1957 : 82. (N / C / S)
Papilio polytes romulus f.♀ cyrus ; Metaye,1957 : 82. (N / C / S)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 17, figs.4:4♂,5♀, 9:8(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Shinkai,1999 : 54-55. (N: Tam Dao / S: Bao Lac)
Papilio polytes ; Vu,2003 : 56. (Phu Quoc)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1, 24, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 7, figs.Pa-15,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dong Nai: Thac Mai; Bin Thuan: Dong Tien; Ho Chi Minh)
Papilio polytes ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 38. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 59-61, pl.15, figs.c♂(f. pammon),d♂[♀](f. mandane),e♀(f. polytes),f♀(f. polytes),g♀(f. polytes),k♀(f. cyrus). (N / C / S) (in part)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Nihira,2009 : 97, fig.♀. (Phu Quoc)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 13. (C / S)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Saito et al.,2017 : 77. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Coto; Nui Ket)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 2♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 10♂ 7♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 4♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 1♂ 1♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bangkok : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 1♀ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong: 1♂ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Songkhla : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Vientiane : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 12♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 6♂ 10♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Vinh Phuc : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bin Thuan : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is very common in secondary forests at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 10 - 1300m) and it is often seen in urban areas. Both sexes visit flowers. Males form flight paths along streams or forest edges, and frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
Both males and females are highly variable in their markings, especially females, which are polymorphic.


Literature

Cramer, P.,1775-1776 :
Uitlandsche Kapellen. voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven.
Amsterdam. Baalde, and Utrecht, Wild. 1(1-7):xxx + 16 + 132pp, pl.1-84, (1775) ; 1(8):133-156, pl.85-96, (1776).

Fabricius, J.C.,1793 : Entomologia systematica emedata et aucta. secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus.
3(1): [iv] + 488 pp. Copenhagen. C.G.Proft.

Hübner, J.,1806-[1819] : Sammlung Exotischer Schmetterlinge.
1:[213] pls.

Felder, C. & Felder, R.,1864 : Species Lepidopterorum hucusque descriptae vel iconibus expressae in seriem systematicum digestae.
Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14:289-378.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1909 : Neue asiatische Papilio-Rassen.
Ent. Zeit. 22(43):177-179.

Boullet, E. & Le Cerf, F.,1912 : Descriptions sommarires de formes nouvelles de Papilionidae (Lep). de la collection du Muséum de Paris (2e note).
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912(11):246-247.

Fabricius, J.C.,1938 : in Bryk, Systema Glossatorum Secundum Ordines, Genera, Species Adiectis Synonymi Locis, Observationibus, Descriptionibus
i-xii, 13-112.

Dufrane, A.,1946 : Papilionidae
Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:101-122.

Rousseau-Decelle, G.,1947 : Contribution a letude des Papilio de la faune Indo-Oceanienne (Lep. Papilionidae)
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:128-133.

Tung, V.W.Y.,1982 : Notes on variant forms of Malaysian Butterflies
Tokurana (Acta Rhopalocera) 4:57-64, 3 pls.

Hu, S.J, Cotton, A.M., Lamas, G, Duan, K. & Zhang, X.,2023 : Checklist of Yunnan Papilionidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidea) with nomenclatural notes and descriptions of new subspecies
Zootaxa 5362(1):001-069.


Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Papilio polytes romulus ♂
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Phetchabun, Thailand.

1996.10.02 - 2023.05.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.