Papilio polytes romulus  Cramer, 1775

Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un.
♂, Songkhla, Thailand. ♀, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up.
♂, Phetchabun, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un.
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Chiang Rai, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un.
♂ (var.), Chanthaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Chonburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Up. Papilio polytes romulus ♀ Un.
♀, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Khammouan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio romulus Cramer, [1775]
OD : Uitl. Kapellen 1:67, pl.43, fig.A♀.
TL : Ceylon.
Distribution : Sri Lanka, Nepal, India to Myanmar,
Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S.Yunnan,
Langkawi, W.Malaysia, Tioman, Aur, Singapore.
● ssp.romulus
hybrid zone of latreilloides and polytes
Papilio polytes romulus Map

Synonyms

Papilio mutius Fabricius, 1793 : Ent. syst. 3(1):3. TL. Tranquebariae. (♀, ZMUC)
Papilio cyrus Fabricius, 1793 : Ent. syst. 3(1):7. TL. Muf.Britann. (♀, ZMUC)
Papilio polytes var.ceylanicus Felder & Felder, 1864 : Verh. zool.-boot. Ges. Wien. 14:319. TL. Ceylon (Rambodde). (♀, NHML)
Papilio polytes pammon f.cyroides Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Ent. Zeit. 22(43):178. TL. Sikkim. (♀, NHML)
Papilio polytes neomelanides Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Ent. Zeit. 22(43):178. TL. Perak ; Singapore. (♂♀)
Papilio polytes ♀f.rubida Fruhstorfer, 1909 : Ent. Zeit. 22(43):179. TL. Malabar. (♀, NHML)
Papilio polytes romulus ♂ab.astreans Jordan, 1909 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:61. TL. S.India. (♂)
Papilio polytes ab.chrysos Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912 : Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912(11):247. TL. Pnom-Penh, Cambodia. (♂, MNHN)
Papilio polytes romulus f.joannisi Dufrane, 1946 : Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:116. TL. Tonkin. (♂)
Papilio polytes romulus ab.obliterata Dufrane, 1946 : Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:116. TL. Hoa Binh, Tonkin. (♂)
Papilio polytes romulus ab.coomani Dufrane, 1946 : Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:116. TL. Hoa Binh, Tonkin. (♀)
Papilio polytes romulus f.indiv.♀rufopalmata Rousseau-Decelle, 1947 : Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:129. TL. Naga Hills, Assam.(♀)
Papilio polytes romulus ♂f.abdulazizia Tung, 1982 : Tokurana 4:58-59, pl.10, figs.1♂,2♂(Un). TL. 7th Mile, Cameron Highlands, Perak. (♂, in coll. V.W.Y.Tung)


Type Materials Information

mutius ; 3♀, Syntypes, det. R.I.Vane-Wright,1977 (ZMUC, photo examined)
cyrus ; ♀, Type, det. R.I.Vane-Wright,1977 (ZMUC, photo examined)
ceylanicus ; ♀, Syn or holotype, Rambodde. det. R.I.Vane-Wright,1979 (NHML, examined)
cyroides ; ♀, Type (red), Darjeeling, Sikkim. (NHML, examined)
rubida ; ♀, Type (red), Malabar, India. (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1916 : 110.
Papilio polytes polytes ; Pendlebury,1923 : 24. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Tai Sai River; Wat Kiriwong; Khao Ram)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1930 : 213. (all over)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1931 : 191. (Ko Tao)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1932a : 264. (P)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Pinratana,1977 : 39, figs.P28,♂,♀(f.cyrus), ♀(f.polytes) ; 40, fig.P28,♀,♀(ab.). (all over)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 24,43, pl.38, figs.30,♂,♀(f.polytes),♂(Un). (every where)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 251, fig.40,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Pha Thaep; Ban Naudom)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 16. (Mukdahan: Nam Tok Tad Ton; Phu Mu; Ban Na Lak; Ubon Ratchathani: Kaeng Tana; Kaeng E-Keow)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 45. (Ubon Ratchathani: Phu Chong Na Yoi; Phu Pung; Don Far Huan; Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Hin Khan; Phu Huai Sing; Nam Tok Tad Ton)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 64, fig.43,♂. (Umphang)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 46, fig.28,♂. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 82, pl.12, figs.P29,♂,♂(Un),♂ ; pl.13, figs.29,♀,♀(Un)(f.cyrus), ♀,♀(Un)(f.polytes). (Pathum Thani; Chiang Dao; Trat)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies, figs. (Koh Samui) (accessed: 2022.01.19)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 125, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un); f.cyrus♀,♀(Un); f.polytes♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Suthep; Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Kradung; Phu Khiewo; Khao Yai; Sarika; Nakohn Nayork; Wan Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Kratchin WF; Khao Phoon; Pliewn WF; Khao Khiewo; Bang Phra; Bangkok; Erawan WF; Kuwai Yai; Kaeng Krachan; Ka Chong; Sai Kao WF; Sonkhula; Haadjai; Than To WF.)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 82, pl.12, figs.P27,♂,♂(Un),♂ ; pl.13, fig.27,♀,♀(Un)(f.cyrus), ♀,♀(Un)(f.polytes). (Pathum Thani; Chiang Dao)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Papilio polytes romulus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Sa Kaeo; Saraburi; Chonburi; Chachoengsao; Yala) (accessed: 2022.01.19)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 159-160, figs.Abb.Pa-089-094,206-241. (Phang Nga)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 87. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio polytes romulus ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 46, pl.7, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un),3,♀,4,♀(Un). (LTN; Vientiane; Luang Prabang; Ban Houei Sai; Nam Ngum Dam)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.12, figs.♂,♂,♂(Un),♀. (Vientiane; Nam Dhua; Lak Sao; Thakhek)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 38. (Namdhua)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 354-356. (Thabok; Hinboun; Koun Ngun)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Papilio polytes ab.chryson ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 149. (Cambodge)
Papilio polytes ab.chryson ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 214. (Cambodge)
Papilio polytes ab.chryson ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 13. (Cambodge)
Papilio polytes ; Onodera,2007 : 23, fig.6,♂. (Rattanakiri: Kalai)
Papilio polytes ; Onodera,2008 : 60,61. (Mondolkiri: Romonea; Bousra)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio polytes polytes ; Godfrey,1919 : 464. (S: Daban)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Moulton,1923 : 132. (Pulo Condore)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Metaye,1957 : 82. (N / C / S)
Papilio polytes romulus f.♀romulus ; Metaye,1957 : 82. (N / C / S)
Papilio polytes romulus f.♀cyrus ; Metaye,1957 : 82. (N / C / S)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 17, figs.4:4♂,5♀, 9:8(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Shinkai,1999 : 54-55. (N: Tam Dao / S: Bao Lac)
Papilio polytes ; Vu,2003 : 56. (Phu Quoc)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1, 24, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Papilio polytes polytes ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 7, figs.Pa-15,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dong Nai: Thac Mai; Bin Thuan: Dong Tien; Ho Chi Minh)
Papilio polytes ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 38. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 59-61, pl.15, figs.c♂(f.pammon),d♂[♀](f.mandane),e♀(f.polytes),f♀(f.polytes),g♀(f.polytes),k♀(f.cyrus). (N / C / S) (in part)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Nihira,2009 : 97, fig.♀. (Phu Quoc)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 13. (C / S)
Papilio polytes romulus ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 77. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Coto; Nui Ket)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 2♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 10♂ 7♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 4♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 1♂ 1♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bangkok : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 1♀ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong: 1♂ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Songkhla : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Vientiane : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 12♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 6♂ 10♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Vinh Phuc : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bin Thuan : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is very common in secondary forest at low to moderate elevations (Alt.10m - 1300m) and it is often seen in urban areas.
Both males and females are highly variable in their markings, especially females, which are polymorphic.


Literature

Cramer, P.,1775-1776 :
Uitlandsche Kapellen. voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven.
Amsterdam. Baalde, and Utrecht, Wild. 1(1-7):xxx + 16 + 132pp, pl.1-84, (1775) ; 1(8):133-156, pl.85-96, (1776).

Fabricius, J.C.,1793 : Entomologia systematica emedata et aucta. secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus.
3(1): [iv] + 488 pp. Copenhagen. C.G.Proft.

Felder, C. & Felder, R.,1864 : Species Lepidopterorum hucusque descriptae vel iconibus expressae in seriem systematicum digestae.
Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14:289-378.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1909 : Neue asiatische Papilio-Rassen.
Ent. Zeit. 22(43):177-179.

Boullet, E. & Le Cerf, F.,1912 : Descriptions sommarires de formes nouvelles de Papilionidae (Lep).
de la collection du Museum de Paris (2e note).
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912(11):246-247.

Dufrane, A.,1946 : Papilionidae
Bull. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 82:101-122.

Rousseau-Decelle, G.,1947 : Contribution a letude des Papilio de la faune Indo-Oceanienne (Lep. Papilionidae)
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:128-133.

Tung, V.W.Y.,1982 : Notes on variant forms of Malaysian Butterflies
Tokurana (Acta Rhopalocera) 4:57-64, 3 pls.


Papilio polytes romulus ♂ Papilio polytes romulus ♂
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Phetchabun, Thailand.

1996.10.02 - 2022.03.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.