Papilio chaon annulus  Pendlebury, 1936

Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Up. Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Un. Papilio nephelus annulus ♀ Up. Papilio nephelus annulus ♀ Un.
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand.
Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Up. Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Un. Papilio nephelus annulus ♀ Up. Papilio nephelus annulus ♀ Un.
♂, Ranong, Thailand. ♀, Ranong, Thailand.
Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Up. Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Un. Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Up. Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Un.
♂, Ranong, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♂, Phuket, Thailand.
Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Up. Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Un. Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Up. Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Un.
♂, Satun, Thailand. ♂, Yala, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio nephelus annulus Pendlebury, 1936
OD : J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 18(1):180-181.
TL : Nakhon Sri Tamarat ; Trang, P.Siam.
Distribution : S.Myanmar, P.Thailand, Langkawi,
W.Malaysia (North).
● ssp.chaon
transition zone of chaon and annulus
ssp.annulus
hybrid zone of annulus and Papilio nephelus
Papilio nephelus annulus map

Synonym

Papilio chaon raya Corbet, 1937 : Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)6(3):46. TL. Langkawi, [Kedah, Malaysia]. (♂, NHML)


Type Materials Information

raya ;
♂, Holotype (red), 6.Sep.1932. Pulau Langkawi, A.S.Corbet (NHML, examined)
♀, Allotype (red), 6.Sep.1932. Pulau Langkawi, A.S.Corbet (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio nephelus saturnus ; Pendlebury,1923 : 23. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram)
Papilio nephelus saturnus ; Godfrey,1930 : 212. (Bangnara; Nakhon Sri Thammarat)
Papilio chaon chaon ; Godfrey,1932a : 264. (P)
Papilio nephelus saturnus ; Godfrey,1932a : 264. (P)
Papilio nephelus raya ; Pinratana,1977 : 34, figs.P24b♀,♀(Un). (in part)
Papilio nephelus annulus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 23,42, pl.32, fig.27b♂(Un) ; pl.33, figs.27b♂,♀. (Trang)
Papilio nephelus annulus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 80, pl.12, figs.P28b♂,♂(Un). (Krabi)
Papilio nephelus sunatus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.12, fig.P28c,♂(bottom). (in part)
Papilio nephelus annulus ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies, figs.[♂],[♂](Un). (Koh Samui) (accessed: 2022.01.19)
Papilio nephelus annulus ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 124, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Key Rap Nam; Ka Chong)
Papilio nephelus annulus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 80, pl.12, figs.P26b♂,♂(Un). (Krabi; Phuket; Ranong)
Papilio nephelus sunatus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.12, fig.P26c♂(bottom). (in part)
Papilio nephelus sunatus ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 158, figs.Abb.Pa-080-081. (Phang Nga)
Papilio chaon annulus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2023- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Nakhon Si Thammarat; Yala) (accessed: 2024.04.07)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Ranong : 5♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phangnga : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phuket : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 2♀ (photo by A.Giudici).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun (Koh Tarutao) : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 3♂ 1♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

Condamine et al.,2023 divided the taxon nephelus into two species, nephelus and chaon, based on molecular analysis.
The butterfly is common in montane forests at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 30 - 600m). Both sexes visit flowers. Males form flight paths along streams or forest edges, and frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
As mentioned in Papilio chaon chaon, the area from Tak to Phetchaburi is a transition zone between ssp.chaon and ssp.annulus. These intermediate individuals occasionally occur in Chiang Mai, N.Thailand and Ranong, P.Thailand.
On the other hand, this taxon is mainly found south of Ranong. However, it is found sympatric with Papilio nephelus sunatus from Hat Yai to Yala and hybrid individuals between the two species are occasionally seen. This area seems to be a hybrid zone of both species. Further taxonomic and distributional studies are needed.


Literature

Pendlebury, H.M.,1936 : Some new records of butterflies from the Malay Peninsula.
J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 18(1):178-186.

Corbet, A.S.,1937 : Observations on Species of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Danaidae from the Malay Peninsula.
Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)6(3):45-52.

Eliot, J.N.,1978 ; In Corbet & Pendlebury. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula, edn. 3.
Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.

Condamine, F.L., Allio, R., Reboud, E.L., Dupuis, J.R., Toussaint, E.F.A., Mazet, N., Hu, S.J., Lewis, D.S., Kunte, K., Cotton, A.M. & Sperling, F.A.H.,2023 :
A comprehensive phylogeny and revised taxonomy illuminate the origin and diversification of the global radiation of Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 183 (2023) 107758:1-22.


Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Papilio nephelus annulus ♀
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. (photo by A.Giudici)
Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Papilio nephelus annulus ♀
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. (photo by A.Giudici)
Papilio nephelus annulus ♂ Papilio nephelus annulus ♂
♂ (hybrid), Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan) ♂ (hybrid), Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan)

1996.10.02 - 2024.04.30.