Papilio chaon chaon  Westwood, 1845

Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Un. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Nan, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Un. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (ws), Nan, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Up.
♂, Trat, Thailand. ♀, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Un. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Un.
♂, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. ♀, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Un. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up.
♂, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Un. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Up.
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Up. Papilio chaon chaon ♀ Un.
♀, Ranong, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ON : Papilio chaon Westwood, 1845
OD : Arcana Ent. 2:97, pl.72, fig.1,♂.
TL : Assam.
Distribution : Nepal, India to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos,
Cambodia, Vietnam, China.
● ssp.chaon
transition zone of chaon and annulus
ssp.annulus
hybrid zone of annulus and Papilio nephelus
Papilio chaon chaon Map

Synonyms

Papilio chaon ducenarius Fruhstorfer, 1908 : Ent. Zeit. 22(18):73. TL. "Tenasserim" [Tanintharyi, Myanmar]. (NHML)
Papilio chaon duketius Fruhstorfer, 1908 : Ent. Zeit. 22(18):73. TL. Siam. (NHML)
Papilio chaon dispensator Fruhstorfer, 1908 : Ent. Zeit. 22(18):73. TL. Tonkin. (NHML)
Papilio chaon chaon ♀f. leucacantha Fruhstorfer, 1908 : Ent. Zeit. 22(18):73. TL. Sikkim. (NHML) (IFS)
Papilio chaon ♂ab. paryphanta Jordan, 1909 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:53. TL. Cherra Punji, Assam. (IFS)
Papilio chaon ab. xanthia Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912 : Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912(11):247. TL. Pnom-Penh, Cambodia. (MNHN) (IFS)
Papilio chaon chaon ab. tripunctata Dufrane, 1936 : Lambillionea. 36:42. TL. Sikkim. (♂) (IFS)
Papilio chaon chaon ab. pseudochaonulus Dufrane, 1936 : Lambillionea. 36:42. TL. Sikkim. (♂) (IFS)


Type Materials Information

ducenarius ; ♂, Type (red), Lower Burma. [Tenasserim.] (NHML, examined)
duketius ; ♂, Type (red), Jan. Muok-Lek, Siam. (NHML, examined)
dispensator ;
♂, Type (red), #149321, Aug.Sept. Chiem-Hoa, Central-Tonkin. H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)
♀, Type (red), #149322, Aug.Sept. Chiem-Hoa, Central-Tonkin. H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)
leucacantha ; ♀, Type (red), Juni. Darjeeling. Fruhstorfer leg. (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio chaon ; Fruhstorfer,1903 : 173. (Siam)
Papilio chaon chaon ; Jordan,1908-1909 : 53. (Siam)
Papilio chaon chaon ; Godfrey,1916 : 110.
Papilio chaon chaon ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Papilio chaon chaon ; Godfrey,1930 : 212. (Prae: Me Song forest; Chiang Rai; Pak Jong; Chonburi: Sriracha; Phetchaburi; 'Songkhla: Ban Prakawp')
Papilio chaon ducenarius ; Davidson & Macbeth,1938 : 68. (Chonburi: Sriracha)
Papilio nephelus raya ; Pinratana,1977 : 34. (Chanthaburi) (in part)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Pinratana,1977 : 35, figs.P24c♂,♂(Un). (all over)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 22,42, pl.31, fig.27a♂ ; pl.34, fig.27a♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; Chanthaburi; Phitsanulok; Kanchanaburi; Nakhon Nayok; 'Ranong')
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 251, fig.39,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Mu; Phu Shang)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 15-16. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Huay Sing; Ban Na Lak; Ban Gok Tum; Ubon Ratchathani: Kaeng E-Keow)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 45. (Ubon Ratchathani: Phu Chong Na Yoi; Mukdahan: Phu Mu; Ban Lao Kram)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 80, pl.11, figs.P28a♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Dao)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 124, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Dao; Doi Phu Kha; Thung Saleng Luang; Mae Sam; Phu Khiewo; Sarika; Nakohn Nayork; Khao Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Kratchin WF; Khao Khiewo)
Papilio nephelus ducenarius ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 124, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (Sai York Noi; Erawan WF; Kuwai Yai; Kaeng Krachan; Hua Hin)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 80, pl.11, figs.P26a♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Dao)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6, photo.13,♂. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Papilio nephelus ducenarius ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6, photo.14,♂. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs., Early Stages. (Phetchabun; Sa Kaeo; Nakhon Nayok; Chanthaburi) (accessed: 2023.05.16)
Papilio nephelus annulus ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 87. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 46, pl.6, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un). (Tha Ngone; Nam Moh; Luang Prabang)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.11, figs.♂(dsf),♂(dsf,Un),♀. (Thabok; Lak Sao)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 353-354. (Thabok; Hinboun: Koun Ngun; Koun Kham; Lak Sao)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Onodera,2009b : 41. (Khammouan: Nacay)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Onodera,2022 : 6, pl.24, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (Bolikhamxai: Konglor; Khammouan: Ban Lao)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Papilio chaon ab. xanthia ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 148. (Cambodge)
Papilio chaon ab. xanthia ; Vitalis,1919 : 213. (Cambodge)
Papilio chaon ab. xanthia ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 12. (Cambodge)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs.♂,♂(Un). (Botum Sakor NP.)
Papilio nephelus ; Onodera,2007 : 27, fig.5,♂. (Siem Reap: Phnum Kuhlen)
Papilio nephelus ; Onodera,2008 : 57. (Mondolkiri: Bousra)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Chartier & Kosterin,2022 : 113. (Koh Kong; Mondulkiri; Pursat; Siem Reap)

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio chaon ; Fruhstorfer,1903 : 173. (Tonkin: Chim-Hoa)
Papilio chaon chaon ; Jordan,1908-1909 : 53. (Tonkin)
Papilio chaon ab. paryphanta ; Dubois & Vitalis,1914 : 148. (Tonkin / Cochinchine)
Papilio chaon ab. paryphanta ; Vitalis,1919 : 213. (Tonkin / Cochinchine)
Papilio chaon ab. paryphanta ; Dubois & Vitalis,1921 : 12. (Tonkin / Cochinchine)
Papilio chaon ; Lemée,1950 : 4. (Hagiang)
Papilio chaon chaon ; Metaye,1957 : 82. (N / C / S)
Papilio chaon chaon ab.♂ paryphanta ; Metaye,1957 : 82. (N / S)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 17, figs.4:2,♂,3,♂(Un),9:7(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Shinkai,1999 : 53. (N: Tam Dao / S: Bao Lac)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1, 23, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 7, figs.Pa-14,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dong Nai: Thac Mai)
Papilio nephelus ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 38. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 56-57, pl.14, figs.1a♂,1b♂(Un),1c♀. (throughout Vietnam)
Papilio nephelus chaon ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 12. (N / C / S)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 1♂ 1♀ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 9♂ 5♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 8♂ 3♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Kanchanaburi : 3♂ 1♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 3♂ 1♀ (photo & photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sa Kaeo : 2♂ (photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 4♂ 1♀ (incl. photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 6♂ 1♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 6♂ 1♀ (incl. photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 6♂ 3♀ (incl. photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Bolikhamxai : 26♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Vientiane : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 26♂ 22♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is common in montane forests at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 10 - 1400m). Both sexes visit flowers. Males form flight paths along streams or forest edges, and frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
The populations from Tak, W.Thailand to Phetchaburi, P.Thailand appear to be highly variable and have unstable markings. It seems a transition zone between ssp.chaon and ssp.annulus. More chaon-like individuals tend to occur in the north, and more annulus-like individuals in the south, but both elements are found sympatrically. These intermediate individuals occasionally occur in Chiang Mai, N.Thailand and Ranong, P.Thailand. The type specimen of ducenarius is an intermediate individual that is more like chaon.
Condamine et al.,2023 divided the taxon nephelus into two species, nephelus and chaon, based on molecular analysis.


Literature

Westwood, J.O.,1841-1845 : Arcana entomologica, or Illustrations of new, rare, and interesting exotic insects.
William Smith, London. 8 vol.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1908 : Lepidopterologisches Pele-Mele. IV. Neue Papiliorassen.
Ent. Zeit. 22(18):72-73.

Jordan, K.,1909 : Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde
9:49-56.

Boullet, E. & Le Cerf, F.,1912 : Descriptions sommarires de formes nouvelles de Papilionidae (Lep). de la collection du Muséum de Paris (2e note).
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912(11):246-247.

Dufrane, A.,1936 : Sur quelques espèces du genre Papilio
Lambillionea. 36:40-42.

Condamine, F.L., Allio, R., Reboud, E.L., Dupuis, J.R., Toussaint, E.F.A., Mazet, N., Hu, S.J., Lewis, D.S., Kunte, K., Cotton, A.M. & Sperling, F.A.H.,2023 :
A comprehensive phylogeny and revised taxonomy illuminate the origin and diversification of the global radiation of Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 183 (2023) 107758:1-22.


Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Papilio chaon chaon ♀
2♂, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama) ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Papilio chaon chaon ♂
♂, Phetchabun, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama) ♂, Sa Kaeo, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama)
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Papilio chaon chaon ♂
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♂(right) with helenus, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ and ♀ Papilio chaon chaon ♀ and 2♂
♂ and ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ and 2♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Papilio chaon chaon ♀
♂, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. ♀, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama)
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Papilio chaon chaon ♀
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama) ♀, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama)
Papilio chaon chaon ♂ Papilio chaon chaon ♂
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♂, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.
Papilio chaon chaon ♂
♂, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.

1996.10.02 - 2023.05.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.