Papilio xuthus  Linnaeus, 1767

Papilio xuthus ♂ Up. Papilio xuthus ♂ Un. Papilio xuthus ♂ Up. Papilio xuthus ♂ Un.
♂ (dsf), Ha Giang, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito) ♂ (wsf), Lao Cai, Vietnam. (photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio xuthus Linnaeus, 1767
OD : Syst. nat. (ed.12) 1(2):751.
TL : 'India orientali' [Canton, China].
Distribution : N.Myanmar, N.Vietnam to China, Taiwan,
Far east Russia, Korea, Japan, Guam, Hawaii.
Papilio xuthus map


Papilio xuthulus Bremer, 1861 : Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg 3:463-464. TL. Bureja Mountains, Amur.
Papilio xuthulinus Murray, 1874 : Ent. mon. Mag. 11:166. TL. Yokohama, Japan.
Papilio xanthus koxinga Fruhstorfer, 1908 : Ent. Zeit. 22(11):46. TL. Formosa. (NHML)
Papilio xanthus neoxuthus Fruhstorfer, 1908 : Ent. Zeit. 22(11):46-47. TL. Ta-Tsien-lu, Tibet.
Papilio neoxanthus forma.xuthina Fruhstorfer, 1908 : Ent. Z. Stuttgart 22(11):47. TL. Siao-Lou, China. (NHML)
Papilio xanthus xuthulus forma.hondoensis Fruhstorfer, 1908 : Ent. Z. Stuttgart 22(11):47. TL. Gifu, Japan. (NHML)
Papilio xuthus ab.chinensis Neuburger, 1908 : Illte. Zeit. Ent. 5:168. TL. China. (Homonym)
Papilio xuthus intermedia Stichel, 1910 : Int. ent. Zeit. 4(7):36. TL. Japan.
Papilio xuthus ab.igneus Sheljuzhko, 1913 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 27(1):15. TL. Ogaki, Japan. (♂)
Papilio xuthus xuthulus f.rubrolunata Closs, 1918 : Int. ent. Zeit. 11(21):194-195. TL. not stated. (♀)
Papilio xanthus xanthus ab.fulvescens Wnukowsky, 1928 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 42:1. TL.Mazujama, Japan.
Papilio xuthus xuthus aber.feminisimilis Mell, 1938 : Deut. ent. Zeit. 1938(2):306. TL. Fumei, China.
Papilio xuthus neoxuthus f.ochrea Mell, 1938 : Deut. ent. Zeit. 1938(2):306. TL. Tali, Chaochow, W.Yunnan, China.

Type Materials Information

koxinga ; ♂, Type, Formosa. Fruhstrfer Coll. (NHML, examined)
neoxuthus ; ♂, Type (red), #149299, Ta-tsien-Lou, 1899. Fruhstrfer Coll. (NHML, examined)
hondoensis ; ♂, Type (red), Gifu, Japan. Fruhstorfer Coll. (NHML, examined)
xuthina ; ♂, Type (red), #149300, Siao-Lou,1895. Fruhstorfer Coll. (NHML, examined)

Records taken from Literature

Papilio xuthus ; Lemée,1950 : 4. (Hagiang)
Papilio xuthus ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 49, pl.11, figs.2a♂[♀],2b♂[♀](Un). (N: Hoang Lien; Ha Giang; Ba Be)
Papilio xuthus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 12. (N: Lao Cai; Bac Can; Ha Giang; Cao Bang)

Specimens Examined

Lao Cai : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ha Giang : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


The butterfly is locally not rare in mountainous areas along the Chinese border in N.Vietnam.
Fujioka et al.,1997 treated the taxon benguetanus from Luzon as a subspecies of xuthus based on hybridisation experiments with xuthus. However, recent DNA analysis by Condamine et al.,2023 has shown that the two are separate species.


Linnaeus, C.,1767 : Systema naturae. Editio duodecima, reformata.
Stockholm 1(2):533-1327 + [16] pp.

Bremer, O.,1861 : Neue Lepidopteren aus Ost-Sibirien und dem Amur-Lande gesammelt von Radde und Maack, bescrieben von Otto Bremer
Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 3:461-496.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1908 : Lepidopterologisches Pele-Mele. I. Neue ostasiatische Rhopaloceren.
Ent. Zeit. 22(11):46-47.

Neuburger, W.,1908 : Papilio xuthus ab. (chinensis Neubgr.). (Lep.)
Illte. Zeit. Ent. 5:168.

Stichel, H.,1910 : Leitbericht.
Int. ent. Zeit. 4(7):35-36.

Closs, A.G.,1918 : Berliner Entomologen-Bund. Sitzung am 29. Mai 1917.
Int. ent. Zeit. 11(21):194-195.

Wnukowsky, W.,1928 : Lepidopteren aus der Umgebung der Stadt Mazujama (Japan).
Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 42:1-4.

Mell, R.E.,1938 : Beitrage zur Fauna Sinica. XVIII. Inventur und okologisches Material zu einer Biologie der Sudchinesischen Lepidopteren.
Deut. ent. Zeit. 1938(2):197-345.

Corbet, A.S.,1949 : The Linnaean Names of Indo-Australian Rhopalocera. Part 7. Summary of Determinations.
Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond (B)18(9-10):191-199.

Fujioka, T., Tsukiyama, H. & Chiba, H.,1997 : Japanese butterflies and their relatives in the world 1 Hesperiidae/ Papilionidae
Shuppan Geijutu Co. Ltd., Tokyo (in Japanese with English summary)

Condamine, F.L., Allio, R., Reboud, E.L., Dupuis, J.R., Toussaint, E.F.A., Mazet, N., Hu, S.J., Lewis, D.S., Kunte, K., Cotton, A.M. & Sperling, F.A.H.,2023 :
A comprehensive phylogeny and revised taxonomy illuminate the origin and diversification of the global radiation of Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 183 (2023) 107758:1-22.

1996.09.26 - 2023.05.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.