Horaga onyx onyx  (Moore, [1858])

Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Up. Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Un. Horaga onyx onyx ♀ Up. Horaga onyx onyx ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Up. Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Un. Horaga onyx onyx ♀ Up. Horaga onyx onyx ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Up. Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Un. Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Up. Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Up. Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Un. Horaga onyx onyx ♂ genitalia Horaga onyx onyx ♂ genitalia
♂, Surat Thani, Thailand. ♂ genitalia, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ON : Thecla onyx Moore, [1858]
OD : in Horsfield & Moore,
Cat. Lep. Ins. East India Co. (1):30.
TL : 'Moulmein' (♂, NHML)
Distribution : Nepal, Sikkim Assam, Myanmar,
Thailand (Surat Thani and Northward), Laos,
Vietnam.
● ssp.onyx
ssp.sardonyx
Horaga onyx sardonyx map

Synonym

Horaga onyx forma.arta Fruhstorfer, 1914 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 28(1):34. TL. Assam.


Type Material Information

onyx ; Holotype ♂, Himalaya. (NHML)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Horaga onyx onyx ; Cowan,1966 : 115-116. (Thailand)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Pinratana,1981 : 125, pl.23, fig.3 ; pl.31,♂, fig.4,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; Chanthaburi; Lampang)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 259, fig.158,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Huay Sing)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 678, pl.310, figs.L334,♂,♂(Un),♀[♂],♀[♂](Un). (Chanthaburi; Kanchanaburi; Khao Poata)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 716, pl.328, figs.L358,♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (Chanthaburi; Kanchanaburi; Khao Pota)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Kimura et al.,2014 : 102, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Chiang Dao; Doi Suthep; Bun Kahn; Phu Huay Sing; Muang Shone)
Horaga onyx onyx ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Chiang Mai) (accessed: 2022.07.30)

[ LAOS ]
Horaga onyx onyx ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 218, pl.124, figs.♂(dsf),♀(dsf). (Lak Sao) (in part)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 55.

[ VIETNAM ]
Horaga onyx ; Metaye,1957 : 88. (no loc.)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Miyazaki et al.,2010 : 29, fig.L-183,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 42. (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Horaga onyx onyx ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 64. (N: Bac Can / C: Lam Dong / S: Dong Nai)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Mai (Alt. 400 - 1600m) : 9♂ 3♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 1♀ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Surat Thani (Khao Poata) : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forests at low to high elevations (Alt. 350 - 1700m) and is sympatrically distributed with Horaga syrinx moulmeina. Males are territorial on trees at forest edges or hilltops. Time of male activity is different between the two species. In syrinx from about 11:00 to 14:00 while in onyx from about 14:00 to 16:00.
The specimen from Khao Poata, Surat Thani seems slightly transitional to ssp.sardonyx. Further taxonomic study is needed.


Literature

Horsfield, T. & Moore, F.,[1858] :
A catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the Museum of the Honourable East-India Company. Vol.1.
London. East India Co.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1914 : Neue Lycaenidae.
Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 28(1):33-35.

Cowan, C.F.,1966 : Indo-oriental Horagini (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae).
Bull. Brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 18(4):103-141, 3 pls.


Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Horaga onyx onyx ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Horaga onyx onyx ♀
♂ (territorial behavior), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Horaga onyx onyx ♂ Horaga onyx onyx ♀
♂ (territorial behavior), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand.
Horaga onyx onyx ♂
♂ (territorial behavior), Chiang Mai, Thailand.

1999.07.18 - 2022.07.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.