Lexias dirtea agosthena  (Fruhstorfer, 1914)

Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂, Quang Ngai, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito) ♀, Quang Ngai, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito)
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Champasak, Laos. (photo by K.Saito) ♀ (ws), Sekong, Laos.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (ws), Lampang, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♀ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (ws), Vientinane, Laos. (photo by K.Saito)
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♀ (ds), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (ws), Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ssp.agosthena ( f.toonchaii )
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Nan, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Loei, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Phetchabun, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Un.
♂, Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito) ♀ (ws), Houaphan, Laos. (photo by K.Saito)
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Un.
♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ssp. ( agosthena ?)
Lexias dirtea ssp. ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea ssp. ♂ Un. Lexias dirtea ssp. ♂ Up. Lexias dirtea ssp. ♂ Un.
♂ (ds), Uttaradit, Thailand. ♂ (ws), Phetchabun, Thailand. (photo by K.Yano)

ON : Adolias dirtea agosthena Fruhstorfer, 1914
OD : Ent. Rundsch. 31(1):2-3.
TL : Cochin China.
Distribution : N. & C.Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Guangxi.

● ssp.agosthena
ssp.agosthena (f.toonchaii)
ssp.[agosthena ?] (not confirmed)
ssp.
ssp.
ssp.merguia
dirtea agosthea map

Synonyms

Euthalia dirtea bontouxi Vitalis, 1924 : Faune ent. Indo-Chine fr. 3:44. TL. Nam-Tie, Laos. (♀)
Lexias dirtea toonchaii Murayama & Kimura, 1990 : The Nature and Insects 25(2):19,20, figs.3(HT,♂), 4(HT,♂Un), 5(PT,♀), 6(PT,♀Un). TL. Do Pha Hom Pok [Doi Pha Hom Pok], N.Thailand. (♂)
Lexias dirtea opertus Tsukada, 1991 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands 5:384,547, pl.81, figs.2(PT,♀), 5(HT,♂),. TL. Fang, Chiang Mai, N.Thailand.
Lexias dirtea gratus Tsukada, 1991 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands 5:384,547, pl.81, figs.7(PT,♂Un), 10(HT,♂), 11(PT,♀Un), 12(PT,♀). TL. Fang, Chiang Mai, N.Thailand.
Euthalia acutipenna Chou & Li, 1994 : in Chou, Monograph. Rhop. Sin. 2:505, figs.♂,♂(Un),763. TL. Guangxi.
Lexias pandita Chou, Yuan, Yin, Zhang & Chen, 2002 : Entomotaxonomia 24(1):54, 58, figs.12a♀[nec.♂],12b♀[nec.♂]. TL. "Quanzhou, Fujian" [wrong labelled]. Huang Bingwen


Type Materials Information

toonchaii :
Holotype ♂, 8.Apr.1989. Do Pha Hom Pok [Doi Pha Hom Pok], N.Thailand. (RIEB)
Paratypes : 2♀, 8.Apr.1989. Do Pha Hom Pok [Doi Pha Hom Pok], N.Thailand. (RIEB)
opertus :
Holotype ♂, 3.Feb.1989. Fang, N.Thailand. (in coll. E.Tsukada)
Paratype 1♀, 14.Sep.1989. Chieng Rai [Chiang Rai], N.Thailand.
gratus :
Holotype ♂, Fang, N.Thailand. 1989.Mar. (in coll. E.Tsukada)
Paratypes 1♂ 2♀, Mar.1989. Fang, N.Thailand.
acutipenna : Holotype ♂, 13.Oct.1979. Longkuang, 200m, Guangxi.
bandita : Holotype ♀ [nec.♂], "Quanzhou, Fujian" [wrong labelled]. Huang Bingwen.


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
"Lexias dirtea merguia ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 83. (Phisanulok) (in part)"
Lexias dirtea toonchai [sic] ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 83, pl.59, figs.158b♂,♀. (Chiang Rai; Chiang Mai)
Lexias dirtea toonchai [sic] ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 458, pl.202-203, figs.N167a♀,♀(Un),♂. (Chiang Mai)
Lexias dirtea toonchaii ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 114, figs.♂(Doi Pha Hom Pok),♂(Un,Doi Pha Hom Pok),♀(Doi Pha Hom Pok),♀(Un,Doi Pha Hom Pok). (Doi Pha Hom Pok; Khun Lao Villege) (in part)
"Lexias dirtea toonchaii ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 114, figs.♂(Thung Saleng Luang),♂(Un,Thung Saleng Luang),♂(Phu Khiewo),♂(Un,Phu Khiewo). (Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Khiewo) (in part)"

[ LAOS ]
Lexias dirtea merguia ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 61, pl.72, figs.5,♂,6,♂(Un),7,♀,8,♀(Un). (Vang Vieng)
Lexias khasiana ssp. ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 61, col.pl.13,♀ ; pl.72, figs.1,♀,2,♀(Un). (Pakse)
Lexias dirtea bontouxi ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 208, pl.69, figs.♂,♂,♀. (Phong Saly; Thakhek; Lak Sao) (in part)
Lexias dirtea bontouxi ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 43. (Namdhua; Thakhek)
Lexias dirtea bontouxi ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 46.

[ VIETNAM ]
Lexias dirtea ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 42. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien)
Lexias dirtea agosthea ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006b : 32, figs.N-98,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambr ; Dai Duc Me)
Lexias dirtea bontouxi ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 41. (N / C)
Lexias dirtea agosthena ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 41. (S)
Lexias dirtea agosthena ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(2):148, pl.76, figs.a♂,b♂(Un),c♀,d♀(Un). (C: Vu Quang; Phong Nha Ke Bang; Phong Dien; Dakrong; Nam Dong; Huong Thuy; Son Thanh; Kon Cha Rang; Kon Ka Kinh; Yok Don; Bu Gia Map; Da Teh; Loc Bac; Bao Lam; Hon Ba; Cat Loc / S: Cat Tien; La Nga; Nghia Trung)
Lexias dirtea bontouxi ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(2):148, pl.76, figs.e♂,f♂(Un). (N: Van Ban)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Mai : 3♂ 6♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 1♀
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Vientiane : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sekong : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Quang Ngai : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


--------------------------------------------------
f.toonchaii

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Rai : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 11♂ 7♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 5♂ 4♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Houaphan : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


{ VIETNAM ]
Khanh Hoa : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


--------------------------------------------------
[ agosthena ? ]

[ THAILAND ]
Phrae : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Uttaradit : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forest at low to high elevations (Alt.250m - 1800m) and frequently comes to rotten fruits that have fallen to the ground.
The species is conspicuous for its seasonal, individual, and geographic variation. Generally, the dry-season male has a broad light blue band on the UpH, and the ground color of the underside is pale. On the other hand, the wet-season male has a narrower and darker blue band, and the ground color of the underside is much darker. In addition, the classification of this species in the continental region, including its relationship with the closely related species Lexias pardalis, is still unclear.
The population with large white markings in space 4 and the base of space 5,6 in the UpF of female is distributed from northern Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam to Guangxi. Recent surveys in northern Thailand have revealed that populations with different phenotypes inhabit different altitudes.
agosthena is found in low to moderate elevations (Alt.250m - 1200m). And the mountain form appears in mountainous areas (Alt.1200m - 1800m) with the following characteristics. Male: slightly smaller in size and the wings are rounder, the black spots in the blue band on the UpH are larger. Female: the basal spot of space 3 on the UpF is extremely small or absent, and the post-discal spots on the UpH are wider. The names toonchaii and gratus are given to this montane form, and opertus is described based on the lowland male and montane female. Some authors treat toonchaii as a distinct subspecies, however in Thailand, it has been confirmed that the distribution overlaps with ssp.agosthena and these two phenotypes are separated by altitude in Chiang Mai, Nan, Loei and Phetchabun. Individuals similar to toonchaii are also found in Laos and Vietnam. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that these are either the variation of the same species or different species. Although molecular analysis is needed to reach a conclusion, I tentatively treat them here as forms of the same species, since these characteristics are highly variable and seem to be unstable.
Males of the lowland to low mountain populations from Phrae to Phetchabun closely resemble agosthena. However, I have not seen any females similar to agosthena in this area, and it may be the female does not have white markings on the UpF, like ssp.merguia. Until a definite female is confirmed, I keep it as an uncertain taxon. Many of the individuals in this population have dark orange-black antenna tips, making them very difficult to distinguish from Lexias pardalis. The tips of the antennae of dirtea are generally all black. However at least in the female from Lampang shown above, the dark orange area is clearly visible. According to Lang,2009, the type locality of bandita, "Quanzhou, Fujian", is considered to be an erroneous locality. Further taxonomic study and distributional research are needed.


Literature

Fruhstorfer, H.,1914 : Rhopaloceren von Cochinchina.
Ent. Rundsch. 31(1):1-3.

Dubois, E. & Vitalis, de S.R.,1924 : Contribution a la Faune Entomologique de l'Indochine Francaise.
Faune ent. Indo-Chine fr. 1924(3):27-47.

Murayama, S. & Kimura, Y.,1990 : Some new butterflies from Thailand.
The Nature and Insects 25(2):19-24, figs.1-23.

Tsukada, E.,1991 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands V, Nymphalidae (II).
Azumino Butterflie's Research Institute. 576pp.(238 col. pls.) (in Japanese)

Chou, I. (ed.),1994 : Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium.
2 vols., 854 pp. Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

Chou, Io., Yuan, X.Q., Yin, H.S., Zhang, C.S. & Chen, X.C.,2002 : New Species, New Subspecies, and New Records of Butterflies from China (VI)
Entomotaxonomia 24(1):52-68.

Lang, S.Y.,2009 : A Study on the systematics of Nymphalidae (excepting Satyrinae) from China (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea)
Beijing, P.R.China.

Lang, S.Y.,2012 : The Nymphalidae of China (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) Part 1
Libytheinae, Danainae, Calinaginae, Morphinae, Heliconiinae, Nymphalinae, Charaxinae, Apaturinae, Cyrestinae, Biblidinae, Limenitinae
456 pp, 32 col. + 41 black&white pls. Tshikolovets Publications, Pardubice.


Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀
♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Lampang, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀
♀, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀ Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀
♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ with Lexias pardalis ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ssp.agosthena ( f.toonchaii )
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Lexias dirtea agosthena ♀
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂ Lexias dirtea agosthena ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Loei, Thailand.

2007.03.03 - 2022.04.30.
A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.