Limenitis asura asura  (Moore, [1858])

Limenitis asura asura ♂ Up. Limenitis asura asura ♂ Un. Limenitis asura asura ♀ Up. Limenitis asura asura ♀ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Limenitis asura asura ♂ Up. Limenitis asura asura ♂ Un. Limenitis asura asura ♀ Up. Limenitis asura asura ♀ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Limenitis asura asura ♂ Up. Limenitis asura asura ♂ Un. Limenitis asura asura ♀ Up. Limenitis asura asura ♀ Un.
♂, Dalat, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito) ♀, Lam Dong, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito)
Limenitis asura asura ♂ Up. Limenitis asura asura ♂ Un. Limenitis asura asura ♀ Up. Limenitis asura asura ♀ Un.
♂, Sekong, Laos. ♀, Vinh Phuc, Vietnam.

ON : Athyma asura Moore, [1858]
OD : in Horsfield & Moore,
Cat. Lep. Ins. Mus. East India Co. (1):171, pl.5a, fig.1.
TL : N.India.
Distribution : India to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam.
● ssp.asura
ssp.idita
Limenitis asura asura Map

Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Pantoporia asura ; Godfrey,1932b : 324-325. (Chiang Mai: Doi Suthep)
'Pantoporia idita ; Godfrey,1932b : 325. (Chiang Mai: Doi Suthep)'
Athyma asura asura ; Pinratana,1979 : 55, figs.N96a♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; Nakhon Ratchasima)
Athyma asura asura ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 58, pl.36, figs.100a♂,♀(Un). (Chiang Mai; Chaiyaphum; Nakhon Ratchasima)
Athyma asura asura ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 402, pl.175, figs.N104a♂,♀. (Umphang)
Athyma asura asura ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 412, pl.179, figs.N269a♂,♀. (Umphang; Doi Phu Kha)
Athyma asura asura ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Chiang Mai; Nakhon Nayok) (accessed: 2020.09.24)
Athyma asura asura ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 86, ♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Pha Hom Pok; Chiang Dao; Doi Suthep; Doi Inthanon; Phu Khiewo)

[ LAOS ]
Athyma asura asura ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 58, not fig. (list only)
Athyma asura asura ; Masui & Uehara,1994 : 5, figs.23,♀,♀(Un). (Xiang Khouang)
Athyma asura asura ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 206, pl.59, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Oudomxay; Lak Sao)
Athyma asura asura ; Onodera,2009b : 39,41. (Bolikhamxai: Thabok; Khammouan: Nacay)
Athyma asura asura ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 45.

[ VIETNAM ]
Pantoporia asura asura ; Fruhstorfer,1912 : 626. (Annam)
Pantoporia asura ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 230. (Tonkin)
Pantoporia asura f.asura ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 40. (Annam)
Pantoporia asura asura ; Metaye,1957 : 96. (C)
Athyma asura asura ; Luong et al.,2004 : 7, 64, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Athyma asura ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 41. (Thua Thien Hue: A Luoi)
Athyma asura asura ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006b : 22, figs.N-65,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dai Duc Me)
Athyma asura asura ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 35. (N / C / S)
Athyma asura asura ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(2):22-23, pl.35, figs.2a♂,2b♂(Un),2c♀. (N: Hoang Lien; Van Ban; Na Hang; Ba Be; Huu Lien; Tam Dao; Cuc Phuong / C: Pu Mat; Vu Quang; Dakrong; A Luoi; Ngoc Linh; Chu Yang Sin; Hon Ba; Bao Lao; Loc Bao / S: La Nga; Nghia Trung)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 9♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 14♂ 4♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 4♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 3♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 8♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Kanchanaburi : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Phong Saly : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sekong : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lao Cai : 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Vinh Phuc : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forest at low to high elevations (Alt.400m - 1700m).
The populations from Laos and N.Vietnam tend to have a narrower band. However, the individuals Thailand, Laos and Vietnam seem to be more seasonal and individual variation than geographical variation. Further study is needed.


Literature

Horsfield, T. & Moore, F.,[1858] : A catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the Museum of the Honourable East-India Company. Vol.1.
London. East India Co.

Wu, L.W., Chiba, H., Lees, D.C., Ohsima, Y. & Jeng, M.L.,2019 : Unravelling relationships among the shared stripes of sailors:
Mitogenomic phylogeny of Limenitidini butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae,Limenitidinae), focusing on the genera Athyma and Limenitis
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 130(2019):60-66.


Limenitis asura asura ♂ Limenitis asura asura ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Limenitis asura asura ♂ Limenitis asura asura ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Limenitis asura asura ♂ Limenitis asura asura ♂+♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂+♀ (mating), Mae Hong Son, Thailand.
Limenitis asura asura ♂ Limenitis asura asura ♂
♂, Lampang, Thailand. ♂ (territorial behavior), Lampang, Thailand.

2006.02.20 - 2022.11.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.