Limenitis dudu secius  (Tsukada, 1991)

Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Un. Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Un. Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Un.
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Un. Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Un.
♂, Loei, Thailand. ♀, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand.
Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Un. Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Un.
♂, Vinh Phuc, Vietnam. ♀, Vinh Phuc, Vietnam.
Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Un. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Un.
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♂, Gia Lai, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito)
Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Un. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Up. Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Un.
♂, Houaphan, Loas. (photo by K.Saito) ♂, Lam Dong, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito)

ON : Sumalia dudu secius Tsukada, 1991
OD : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands. 5:297,543,
pl.18, figs.4,(PT,♂Un),7(HT,♂).
TL : Tamdao, N.Vietnam. (in coll. E.Tsukada)
Distribution : Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, S.China.
Limenitis dudu secius map

Synonym

Sumalia dudu pilosus Tsukada, 1991 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands. 5:297,543, pl.18, figs.1(HT,♂),2(PT,♂Un),3(PT,♀). TL. Chieng Dao [Chiang Dao], N.Thailand. (in coll. E.Tsukada)


Type Materials Information

secius :
Holotype ♂, 11.Apr.1990. Tamdao, 1,300m, N.Vietnam. (in coll. E.Tsukada)
Paratypes ; 3♂, same locality as holotype.
philosus :
Holotype ♂, Feb.1980. Chieng Dao [Chiang Dao], N.Thailand. (in coll. E.Tsukada)
Paratypes ; all paratypes from Thailand.
4♂, Chieng Dao [Chiang Dao, Chiang Mai] ; 4♂ 1♀, Phu Khies [Phu Khieo, Chaiyaphum] ; 1♂, Nan ; 1♂, Fang [Fang, Chiang Mai] ; 4♂, Vieng Pa Pao [Wiang Pa Pao, Chiang Rai].


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Limenitis dudu ; Godfrey,1932b : 325. (Chiang Mai: Doi Suthep)
Sumalia dudu dudu ; Pinratana,1979 : 62, figs.N110,♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; Kao Yai)
Sumalia dudu pilosus ; Tsukada,1991 :297,543, pl.18, figs.1(HT,♂),2(PT,♂Un),3(PT,♀). (Chieng Dao [Chiang Dao]; Phu Khies [Phu Khieo]; Nan; Fang; Vieng Pa Pao [Wiang Pa Pao])
Limenitis dudu dudu ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 63, pl.41, fig.115,♂. (Chiang Mai; Phisanulok; Nakhon Nayok)
Parasarpa dudu dudu ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 412, pl.180, figs.N120,♂,♂(Un),♀. (Doi Pha Hom Pok)
Parasarpa dudu dudu ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 422, pl.184, figs.N286,♂,♂(Un),♀. (Doi Pha Hom Pok; Doi Phu Kha)
Parasarpa dudu philosus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs., Early Stages. (Chiang Mai; Kamphaeng Phet; Phetcahabun; Nakhon Nayok) (accessed: 2020.09.24)
Parasarpa dudu dudu ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 93, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Pha Hom Pok; Doi Phui; Doi Suthep; Doi Inthanon; Wang Chin; Thung Saleng Luang)

[ LAOS ]
Sumalia dudu dudu ; Masui & Uehara,1995 : 5, pl.2, fig.2,♂. (Phong Sali)
Parasarpa dudu dudu ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 207, pl.61, fig.♂. (Oudomxay)
Parasarpa dudu dudu ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 46, pl.4, figs.Ny-103,♀,♀(Un). (Phou Samsoum)

[ VIETNAM ]
Limenitis dudu f.dudu ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 41. (Tonkin: Chapa; Cochinchine: Gyarai)
Limenitis dudu dudu ; Metaye,1957 : 97. (N / S)
Parasarpa dudu ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 41. (Thua Thien Hue: Bach Ma)
Parasarpa dudu hainensis ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006b : 26, figs.N-75,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri)
Parasarpa dudu dudu ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 41. (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Parasarpa dudu dudu ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 36. (N / C: to Lam Dong)
Parasarpa dudu dudu ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(2):41-42, pl.40, figs.1a♂,1b♂(Un). (N: Hoang Lien; Van Ban; Dong Van; Dong Phuc; Lung Li; Ba Vi; Tam Dao / C: Bach Ma; Son Thanh; Bi Doup-Nui Ba; Hon Ba; Chu Yang Sin; Loc Bac)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Mai : 14♂ 2♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 15♂ 3♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chaiyaphum : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 1♀ (photo by S.Sophonviwatkul).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Houaphan : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Vinh Phuc : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Gia Lai : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forest at moderate to high elevations (Alt.900m - 1800m).
Tsukada,1991 described ssp.philosus from Thailand and ssp.secius from Vietnam. Certainly N.Thailand specimens tend to have a wider band and the Vietnamese specimens have a narrower band. However, the individuals from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam show more seasonal and individual variation than geographical variation, so it is not possible to make a clear distinction. Therefore, I consider all Indochinese populations to be secius and treat philosus as a synonym.


Literature

Tsukada, E.,1991 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands V, Nymphalidae (II)
Azumino Butterflie's Research Institute. 576pp.(238 col. pls.) (in Japanese)

Wu, L.W., Chiba, H., Lees, D.C., Ohsima, Y. & Jeng, M.L.,2019 : Unravelling relationships among the shared stripes of sailors:
Mitogenomic phylogeny of Limenitidini butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae,Limenitidinae), focusing on the genera Athyma and Limenitis
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 130(2019):60-66.


Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Limenitis dudu secius ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Limenitis dudu secius ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Loei, Thailand.
Limenitis dudu secius ♂ Limenitis dudu secius ♂
♂, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama) ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Limenitis dudu secius ♀ Limenitis dudu secius ♀
♀, ♀(laying egg), Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama)

2007.03.10 - 2022.11.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.