Melanitis leda leda  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Un.
♂ (dsf), Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Un.
♂ (dsf), Tak, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un.
♂ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Satun, Thailand.

ON : Papilio leda Linnaeus, 1758
OD : Syst. Nat. (ed.10) 1:474.
TL : Asia [Canton]. (Linnean Society of London)
Distribution : Sri Lanka, India to Myanmar, Andamans, Nicobars,
Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S.China, Formosa, Japan, Langkawi,
W.Malaysia, Aur, Singapore, Borneo, Sumatra, Palawan, Philippines.
Melanitis leda leda map

Synonyms

Papilio ismene Cramer, 1775 : Uitl. Kapellen 1:40, pl.26. figs.A,B. TL. China.
Papilio mycena Cramer, 1780 : Uitl. Kapellen 4(25-26a):7-8, pl.291, fig.F(Un). TL. Coromandel.
Melanitis phedima nuwara Fruhstorfer, 1911 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:365. TL. Mindoro.


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1916 : 122.
Melanitis leda ismene ; Pendlebury,1923 : 33. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1927 : 122. (N)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1930 : 254. (all over)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1932a : 267. (P)
Melanitis leda leda ; Pinratana,1988 : 6, pl.1, figs.1,♂(dsf),♂(wsf.Un). (Chiang Mai; Chanthaburi; Nakhon Nayok; Nakhon Ratchasima; Surat Thani; Trang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 253, fig.68,♂. (Mukdahan: Ban Naudom; Phu Shang; Phu Huay Sing)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 21. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Huay Sing; Ban Na Lak; Ban Gok Tum; Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Ba Hai; Ban Na Pho Krang; Phu Chong Na Yoi; Nam Tok Soi Sawan; Phu Hin Dang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 48. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Hin Khan; Phu Huai Sing; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Ubon Ratchathani: Warin Chamrap)
Melanitis leda leda ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 67, fig.107,♂. (Umphang: Tha-Sai; Umphang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 220, pl.82, figs.S1,♂(wsf),♂(wsf.Un),♂(dsf),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un). (Tak; Lamphum)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2010 : 1.
Melanitis leda leda ; Les Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, figs. (Koh Samui; Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2022.01.01)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 220, pl.82, figs.N37,♂(wsf),♂(wsf.Un),♂(dsf),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un). (Tak; Lamphum)
Melanitis leda leda ; Okamoto et.al.,2013 : 9. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Melanitis leda leda ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. Early Stages. (Sa Kaeo; Chanthaburi) (accessed: 2022.01.01)
Melanitis leda leda ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 156, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Par Hom Pok; Doi Suthep; Phu Khiewo; Khao Yai; Nakohn Nayok; Wan Nam Khiewo; Phu Hin Khan; Kao Soi Dao; Kratching WF; Kao Saverb; Bang Phra; Kaeng Chai; Erawan WF; Kaeng Krachan; Khlong Naka; Ka Chong; Sai Kao WF; Than To WF.)
Melanitis leda leda ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 254-255, figs.Abb.S-046-S-048. (Phang Nga)
Melanitis leda leda ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 86. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Melanitis leda leda ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 63, pl.80, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un),3,♀[♂],4,♀[♂](Un). (Vientiane; Tha Ngone)
Melanitis leda leda ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 210, pl.85, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂(dsf),♀(dsf),♂(dsf,Un). (Lak Sao; Xiang Khouang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2003 : 1, fig.2,map. (Lak Sao; Tat Lo, nr Saravan)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 44. (Namdhua; Thakhek; Nhahin; Laksao)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2006 : 1, fig.1,map. (Phon Savan; Muang Kham; Phong Si; Vieng Thong; Nha Hin Pass; Lak Sao)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2011 : 1. (C: near Nahin; Nahin Pass; Ban Namnian)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 47.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Melanitis leda ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs,♂(dsf),♂(dsf,Un),♂(wsf),♂(wsf,Un). (Botum Sakor NP.)
Melanitis leda ; Onodera,2007 : 29, fig.33,♂. (Siem Reap: Angkor)
Melanitis leda ; Onodera,2008 : 60. (Mondolkiri: Romonea)
Melanitis leda leda ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Melanitis ismene ; Joannis,1901 : 318. (Tonkin: Cao Bang)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Fruhstorfer,1911 : 362. (Tonkin)
Melanitis determinata ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 224. (Tonkin)
Melanitis mycena ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 224. (Tonkin)
Melanitis leda ; Lemee,1950 : 8. (Hagiang)
Melanitis ismene ; Lemee,1950 : 8. (Hagiang)
Melanitis leda ismene f.hib.ismene ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda ismene f.aest.determinata ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda palliata ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ikeda et al.,1999 : 53, figs.4:1,♀,2,♀(Un), fig.9:16(♂,genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Melanitis leda ; Vu,2003 : 57. (Phu Quoc)
Melanitis leda leda ; Luong et al.,2004 : 3, 43, figs.♀,♀(Un),♂[♀],♂[♀](Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Melanitis leda leda ; Monastyrskii,2005 : 22, pl.1, figs.1a♂(wsf),1b♂(wsf.Un),1c♂(dsf.Un). (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda leda ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006c : 28, figs.S-1,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dai Duc Me; Gung Re; Dong Nai: Thac Mai; Bin Thuan: Dong Tien)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nihira,2009 : 100. (Phu Quoc)
Melanitis leda leda ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 20. (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda mycena ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 40. (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Melanitis leda leda ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 81. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Coto)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 6♂ 4♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat (Koh Kut dist.) : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 2♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trang : 1♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Pattani : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun (incl. Koh Tarutao) : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 5♂ 3♀ (incl.photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Narathiwat : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 1♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is very common in secondary and mountain forests at low to high elevations (alt.10m - 2000m). Occasionally they come to the electric lights in shops in town after sunset.


Literature

Linnaeus, C.,1758 : Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis.
Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. (Edition 10). 1(Animalia):[iv]+824pp.

Cramer, P.,1775-1780 :
De uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America. Papillons exotiques des trois parties du monde l'Asie, l'Afrique et l'Amerique.
Amsteldam, S.J.Baalde; Barthelemy Wild and J. Van Schoonhoven & Comp.
1(1/7):i-xxx, 1-16, 1-132, pls.1-84 ([31 December]1775), (8):133-155, pls.85-96 (1776); 2(9/16):1-151, pls.97-192 (1777); 3(17/22):1-128, pls.193-264 (1779), (23/24):129-176, pls.265-288 (1780); 4(25/26):1-28, pls.289-304 (1780)

Fruhstorfer, H.,1911 : 4. Familie: Satyridae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9
361-368. (7.Jun.1911)


Melanitis leda leda ♂ Melanitis leda leda
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂,♀ (dsf), Laos. (photo by K.Phongpiyamit)
Melanitis leda leda ♂
♂, Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan)

1998.12.04 - 2022.06.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.