Melanitis leda leda   (Linnaeus,1758)

Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Un.
♂, 1992.11.21. Pai, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀, 1984.02.05. Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Un.
♂, 1994.06.08. Umphang, Tak, Thailand. ♀, 1993.10.30. Omkoi, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un.
♂, 1984.02.05. Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, 1992.02.08. Koh Tarutao, Satun, Thailand.
( photo by P.Sukkit )

ON : Papilio leda  Linnaeus,1758
OD : Syst. Nat. (ed.10) 1:474.
TL : Asia [Canton]. (Linnean Society of London)




Distribution : Sri Lanka, India to Myanmar, Andamans, Nicobars,
Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S.China, Formosa, Japan, Langkawi,
W. Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Sumatra, Palawan, Philippines.
Melanitis leda leda map

Synonyms

Papilio ismene  Cramer,[1775] : Uitl. Kapellen 1:40, pl.26. figs.A,B.  TL. China.
Papilio mycena  Cramer,[1780] : Uitl. Kapellen 4(25-26a):7-8, pl.291, fig.F(Un).  TL. Coromandel.
Melanitis phedima nuwara  Fruhstorfer,1911 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:365.  TL. Mindoro.


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1916 : 122.
Melanitis leda ismene ; Pendlebury,1923 : 33. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1927 : 122. (North)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1930 : 254. (all over)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1932a : 267. (Peninsular)
Melanitis leda leda ; Reeves,1966 : 14. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai)
Melanitis leda leda ; Reeves,1967a : 129. (Nakhon Nayok)
Melanitis leda leda ; Pinratana,1988 : 6, pl.1, fig.1,♂(dsf),♂(wsf.Un). (Chiang Mai / Chanthaburi / Nakhon Nayok / Nakhon Ratchasima / Surat Thani / Trang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 253, fig.68♂. (Mukdahan: Ban Naudom ; Phu Shang ; Phu Huay Sing)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 21. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram ; Phu Huay Sing ; Ban Na Lak ; Ban Gok Tum / Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Ba Hai ; Ban Na Pho Krang ; Phu Chong Na Yoi ; Nam Tok Soi Sawan ; Phu Hin Dang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 48. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram ; Phu Hin Khan ; Phu Huai Sing ; Nam Tok Tad Ton / Ubon Ratchathani: Warin Chamrap)
Melanitis leda leda ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 67, fig.107♂. (Umphang: Tha-Sai ; Umphang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 220, pl.82, fig.S1,♂(wsf),♂(wsf.Un),♂(dsf),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un).   (Tak / Lamphum)
Melanitis leda leda ; Les Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies. (Koh Samui)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 220, pl.82, fig.N37,♂(wsf),♂(wsf.Un),♂(dsf),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un).   (Tak / Lamphum)

[ LAOS ]
Melanitis leda leda ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 63, pl.80, figs.1♂,2♂(Un),3♀[♂],4♀[♂](Un). (Vientiane / Tha Ngone)
Melanitis leda leda ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 210, pl.85, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂(dsf),♀(dsf),♂(dsf,Un). (Lak Sao / Xiang Khouang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2003 : 1, fig.2,map. (Lak Sao / Tat Lo, nr Saravan)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 44. (Namdhua / Thakhek / Nhahin / Laksao)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2006 : 1, fig.1,map. (Phon Savan / Muang Kham / Phong Si / Vieng Thong / Nha Hin Pass / Lak Sao )
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2011 : 1. (Central: near Nahin ; Nahin Pass ; Ban Namnian)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 ; 47.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Melanitis leda ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs,♂(dsf),♂(dsf,Un),♂(wsf),♂(wsf,Un). (Botum Sakor NP.)
Melanitis leda ; Onodera,2007 : 29, fig.33♂. (Siem Reap: Angkor)
Melanitis leda ; Onodera,2008 : 60. (Mondolkiri: Romonea)

[ VIETNAM ]
Melanitis ismene ; Joannis,1901 : 318. (Tonkin: Cao Bang)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Fruhstorfer,1911 : 362. (Tonkin)
Melanitis determinata ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 224. (Tonkin)
Melanitis mycena ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 224. (Tonkin)
Melanitis leda ; Lemee,1950 : 8. (Hagiang)
Melanitis ismene ; Lemee,1950 : 8. (Hagiang)
Melanitis leda ismene f.hib.ismene ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (North / Central / South)
Melanitis leda ismene f.aest.determinata ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (North / Central / South)
Melanitis leda palliata ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (North / Central / South)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ikeda et al.,1999 : 53, fig.4:1♀,2♀(Un), fig.9:16(♂,genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Melanitis leda leda ; Monastyrskii,2005 : 22, pl.1, figs.1a♂(wsf),1b♂(wsf.Un),1c♂(dsf.Un). (North / Central / South)
Melanitis leda leda ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006c : 28, figs.S-1♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri ; Dai Duc Me ; Gung Re / Dong Nai: Thac Mai / Bin Thuan: Dong Tien)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nihira,2009 : 100. (Phu Quoc)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
 Mae Hong Son, Pai.               1992.11.21    1♂        P.Sukkit (YI)
 Mae Hong Son, Ban Tung Kong Mu.  1997.08.21         1♀   P.Sukkit (PS)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.          1984.02.05    3♂  7♀   Y.Shiraishi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.          1983.03.02    1♂        Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.          1983.03.05    1♂        Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.          1990.03.09         1♀   K.Yasuda (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.          1985.08.16         1♀   Y.Shiraishi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Omkoi.               1993.10.30    1♂  1♀   Local Catcher (YI)
 Tak, Umphang.                    1994.06.08    1♂        Local Catcher (YI)
 Chonburi, Pattaya.               1990.11.23    1♂        Y.Shiraishi (YI)
 Chanthaburi, Khao Soi Dao.       1984.03.07         2♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Trat, Ko Chang.                  1996.03.14    1♂        Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Ranong, Khlong Naka.             1984.02.28         1♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Ranong, Khlong Naka.             1984.03.02    1♂  1♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Ranong, Kampuan.                 1991.03.23    1♂        Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Trang.                           1985.01.05         1♀   P.Sukkit (PS)
 Trang.                           1985.01.10         1♀   P.Sukkit (PS)
 Trang, Khao Chong.               1981.01.07    1♂        P.Sukkit (PS)
 Pattani, Sai Khao WF.            1992.03.17         1♀   S.Ruangrit (YI)
 Satun, Thaleban.                 1997.03.29    1♂        P.Sukkit (PS)
 Satun, Koh Tarutao.              1992.02.08    1♂        P.Sukkit (PS)
 Yala, Than To.                   1992.03.18         2♀   S.Ruangrit (YI)
 Yala, Than To.                   1992.03.19         1♀   S.Ruangrit (YI)
 Yala, Than To.                   1987.03.24    1♂        Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Yala, Pong Pong WF.              1997.04.05    1♂        P.Sukkit (PS)
 Narathiwat, Bajo WF.             1992.02.15    1♂  1♀   P.Sukkit (PS)

[ VIETNAM ]
 Lam Dong, Dambri.                2003.09.17         1♀   K.Saito (KS)
 Lam Dong, Dambri.                2002.12.30         1♀   K.Saito (KS)
 Lam Dong, Dai Duc Me.            2003.12.29    1♂        K.Saito (KS)

Notes
Literature

Linnaeus, C.,1758 : Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis.
Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. (Edition 10). 1(Animalia):[iv]+824pp.

Cramer, P.,[1775]-[1776] :
Uitlandsche Kapellen. voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven.
Amsterdam. Baalde, and Utrecht, Wild. 1(1-7):xxx + 16 + 132pp, pl.1-84, [1775] ; 1(8):133-156, pl.85-96,[1776]

Cramer, P.,[1780] :
Uitlandsche Kapellen. voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven.
Amsterdam. Baalde, and Utrecht, Wild. 4(25-26a):1-28, pl.289-304.

Melanitis leda leda ♂ Melanitis leda leda
♂, 2012.08.05. Chiang Rai. ( photo by M.Sugiyama ) Laos. ( photo by K.Phongpiyamit )

1998.12.04 - 2013.01.31.