Melanitis leda leda  (Linnaeus,1758)

Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Un.
♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♀ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Up. Melanitis leda leda ♂ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Satun, Thailand.

ON : Papilio leda Linnaeus,1758
OD : Syst. Nat. (ed.10) 1:474.
TL : Asia [Canton]. (Linnean Society of London)




Distribution : Sri Lanka, India to Myanmar, Andamans, Nicobars,
Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S.China, Formosa, Japan, Langkawi,
W. Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Sumatra, Palawan, Philippines.
Melanitis leda leda map

Synonyms

Papilio ismene Cramer,[1775] : Uitl. Kapellen 1:40, pl.26. figs.A,B.  TL. China.
Papilio mycena Cramer,[1780] : Uitl. Kapellen 4(25-26a):7-8, pl.291, fig.F(Un).  TL. Coromandel.
Melanitis phedima nuwara Fruhstorfer,1911 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:365.  TL. Mindoro.


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1916 : 122.
Melanitis leda ismene ; Pendlebury,1923 : 33. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1927 : 122. (N)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1930 : 254. (all over)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Godfrey,1932a : 267. (Peninsula)
Melanitis leda leda ; Reeves,1966 : 14. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai)
Melanitis leda leda ; Reeves,1967a : 129. (Nakhon Nayok)
Melanitis leda leda ; Pinratana,1988 : 6, pl.1, fig.1,♂(dsf),♂(wsf.Un). (Chiang Mai / Chanthaburi / Nakhon Nayok / Nakhon Ratchasima / Surat Thani / Trang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 253, fig.68♂. (Mukdahan: Ban Naudom ; Phu Shang ; Phu Huay Sing)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 21. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram ; Phu Huay Sing ; Ban Na Lak ; Ban Gok Tum / Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Ba Hai ; Ban Na Pho Krang ; Phu Chong Na Yoi ; Nam Tok Soi Sawan ; Phu Hin Dang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 48. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram ; Phu Hin Khan ; Phu Huai Sing ; Nam Tok Tad Ton / Ubon Ratchathani: Warin Chamrap)
Melanitis leda leda ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 67, fig.107♂. (Umphang: Tha-Sai ; Umphang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 220, pl.82, fig.S1,♂(wsf),♂(wsf.Un),♂(dsf),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un).   (Tak / Lamphum)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2010 : 1.
Melanitis leda leda ; Les Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, figs.4exs.(Un). (Koh Samui / Koh Phangan)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 220, pl.82, fig.N37,♂(wsf),♂(wsf.Un),♂(dsf),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♂(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf.Un).   (Tak / Lamphum)
Melanitis leda leda ; Okamoto et.al.,2013 : 9. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Melanitis leda leda ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs.♂(Un),♂(Un), Early Stages. (Sa Kaeo / Chanthaburi)
Melanitis leda leda ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 156, fig.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Par Hom Pik / Doi Suthep / Phu Khiewo / Khao Yai / Nakohn Nayok / Wan Nam Khiewo / Phu Hin Khan / Kao Soi Dao / Kratching WF / Kao Saverb / Bang Phra / Kaeng Chai / Erawan WF / Kaeng Krachan / Khlong Naka / Ka Chong / Sai Kao WF / Than To WF)

[ LAOS ]
Melanitis leda leda ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 63, pl.80, figs.1♂,2♂(Un),3♀[♂],4♀[♂](Un). (Vientiane / Tha Ngone)
Melanitis leda leda ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 210, pl.85, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂(dsf),♀(dsf),♂(dsf,Un). (Lak Sao / Xiang Khouang)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2003 : 1, fig.2,map. (Lak Sao / Tat Lo, nr Saravan)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 44. (Namdhua / Thakhek / Nhahin / Laksao)
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2006 : 1, fig.1,map. (Phon Savan / Muang Kham / Phong Si / Vieng Thong / Nha Hin Pass / Lak Sao )
Melanitis leda leda ; Uémura,2011 : 1. (C: near Nahin ; Nahin Pass ; Ban Namnian)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 ; 47.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Melanitis leda ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs,♂(dsf),♂(dsf,Un),♂(wsf),♂(wsf,Un). (Botum Sakor NP.)
Melanitis leda ; Onodera,2007 : 29, fig.33♂. (Siem Reap: Angkor)
Melanitis leda ; Onodera,2008 : 60. (Mondolkiri: Romonea)
Melanitis leda leda ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Melanitis ismene ; Joannis,1901 : 318. (Tonkin: Cao Bang)
Melanitis leda ismene ; Fruhstorfer,1911 : 362. (Tonkin)
Melanitis determinata ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 224. (Tonkin)
Melanitis mycena ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 224. (Tonkin)
Melanitis leda ; Lemee,1950 : 8. (Hagiang)
Melanitis ismene ; Lemee,1950 : 8. (Hagiang)
Melanitis leda ismene f.hib.ismene ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda ismene f.aest.determinata ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda palliata ; Metaye,1957 : 104. (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda leda ; Ikeda et al.,1999 : 53, fig.4:1♀,2♀(Un), fig.9:16(♂,genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Melanitis leda ; Lien,2003 : 57. (Phu Quoc)
Melanitis leda leda ; Hao et al.,2004 : 3, 43, figs.♀,♀(Un),♂[♀],♂[♀](Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Melanitis leda leda ; Monastyrskii,2005 : 22, pl.1, figs.1a♂(wsf),1b♂(wsf.Un),1c♂(dsf.Un). (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda leda ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006c : 28, figs.S-1♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri ; Dai Duc Me ; Gung Re / Dong Nai: Thac Mai / Bin Thuan: Dong Tien)
Melanitis leda leda ; Nihira,2009 : 100. (Phu Quoc)
Melanitis leda leda ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 ; 20. (N / C / S)
Melanitis leda mycena ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 40. (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Melanitis leda leda ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 81. (S: Nui Cam / Nui Coto)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 1♂ 1♀ ; Mae Hong Son dist ; Pai dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 3♂ 3♀ ; Chiang Mai dist ; Omkoi dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 1♂ ; Umphang dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 1♂ ; Pattaya dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 2♀ ; Soi Dao dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 1♂ ; Koh Chang dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 2♂ 2♀ ; Suk Samran dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trang : 1♂ 2♀ ; Na Yong dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Pattani : 1♂ 1♀ ; Khok Pho dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun : 2♂ ; Satun dist. (Koh Tarutao) ; Khuan Don dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♂ 3♀ ; Than To dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Narathiwat : 1♂ 1♀ ; Bacho dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 1♂ 2♀ ; Bao Loc dist ; Bao Loc dist.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes
Literature

Linnaeus, C.,1758 : Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis.
Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. (Edition 10). 1(Animalia):[iv]+824pp.

Cramer, P.,[1775]-[1776] :
Uitlandsche Kapellen. voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven.
Amsterdam. Baalde, and Utrecht, Wild. 1(1-7):xxx + 16 + 132pp, pl.1-84, [1775] ; 1(8):133-156, pl.85-96,[1776]

Cramer, P.,[1780] :
Uitlandsche Kapellen. voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven.
Amsterdam. Baalde, and Utrecht, Wild. 4(25-26a):1-28, pl.289-304.

Melanitis leda leda
♂,♀, Laos. (photo by K.Phongpiyamit)

1998.12.04 - 2018.09.30.