Catopsilia pomona pomona  (Fabricius, 1775)

Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂ Up. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂ Un. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Up. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Un.
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂ Up. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂ Un. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Up. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Un.
♂, Bangkok, Thailand. ♀, Chonburi, Thailand.
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Up. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Un. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Up. Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Up.
♀, Xaignabouli, Laos. ♀, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ON : Papilio pomona Fabricius,1775
OD : Syst. Ent. :479.
TL : 'nova Hollandia'
Distribution : Sri Lanka, India to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia,
Vietnam, Hainan, China, Taiwan, Langkawi, W.Malaysia, Tioman,
Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Palawan, Philippines.
Catopsilia pomona pomona map

Synonyms
(--- The taxon marked with an asterisk is cited from other literature and I have not been able to confirm the original description.)

Papilio crocale Cramer,1775 : Uitl. Kapellen 1(5):87, pl.55, figs.C♀,D(Un). TL. "Oost-Indien" [E.India].
Papilio jugurtha Cramer,1777 : Uitl. Kapellen 2(9-16):138, pl.187, figs.E♀,F♀(Un). TL. "Kust van Coromandel" [S.India].
Papilio catilla Cramer,1779 : Uitl. Kapellen 3(17-21):63-64, pl.229, figs.D♀,E♀(Un). TL. "Kust van Coromandel" [S.India].
Papilio nigropunctatus Goeze,1779 : Ent. Beyträge 3(1):185. 'Americes incola'.
Papilio hilaria Stoll,1781 : in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4(29-31):95, pl.339, figs.A♂,B♂(Un). TL. "Kust van Coromandel" [S.India].
Papilio lalage Herbst,1792 : in Jablonsky, Natursyst. Ins.,Schmett. 5:163, pl.106, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un). TL. "Ostindien".
Papilio alcmeone Fabricius,1793 : Ent. syst. 3(1):196. TL. "Tranquebariae".
Papilio titania Fabricius,1798 : Ent. syst. Suppl. :428. TL. "India orientali" [S.India].
Colias jugurthina Godart,1819 : in Ency. meth. 9(Ins.)(2):96. TL. "Bengale & sur la côte de Coromandel".
Callidryas phlegeus Wallace,1867 : Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3)4(3):401. TL. Timor.
Catopsilia heera Swinhoe,1885 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1885(1):140. TL. "Belgaum ; Poona".
Catosilia crocale f. flavescens Fruhstorfer,1910 : in Setiz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:162, pl.69c. TL. not stated.
Catosilia crocale ♀f. latilimbata Fruhstorfer,1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:163. TL. Java.
Catopsilia pomona f. serrata Fruhstorfer,1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:163. TL. Java.
Catopsilia pomona ♂f. citronella Fruhstorfer,1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:163. TL. "Sundainseln" [Lesser Sunda Is.].
Catopsilia pomona ♀f. nivescens Fruhstorfer,1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:163. TL. "Sundainseln" [Lesser Sunda Is.].
Catopsilia pomona f. siscia Fruhstorfer,1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:163. TL. "Sundainseln" [Lesser Sunda Is.].
Catopsilia pomona form formosana Sonan,1930 : Zephyrus 2(3):171, fig.6♀. TL. "Taihoku" [Taipei, Taiwan]. (♀)
Catopsilia crocale crocale ♀ab. fasciata Dufrane, 1947 : Bull. Annls. Soc. ent. Belg. 83:64. TL. Cho Ganh, Tonkin.
Catopsilia crocale crocale ♀ab. deficiens Dufrane, 1947 : Bull. Annls. Soc. ent. Belg. 83:64. TL. Cho Ganh, Tonkin.
Catopsilia crocale crocale ♀ab. joannisi Dufrane, 1947 : Bull. Annls. Soc. ent. Belg. 83:64. TL. Station de Phu tho, Tonkin.
Catopsilia crocale crocale ♀ab. transiens Dufrane, 1947 : Bull. Annls. Soc. ent. Belg. 83:64. TL. Cho Ganh, Tonkin.
Catopsilia pomona ♀ab. emblematis Murayama, 1961 : Trans. lepid. Soc. Jap. 11(4):55, figs.10,♀,12,♀(Un). TL. "Poli, Formosa" [Puli, Taiwan].

∗ "Catopsilia pura Lindner, 1924 : Ent. Rundsch. 41:2. TL. India." (Cited from Bridges,1988)
∗ "Catopsilia pomona ab. dinkelmanni Lindner, 1924 : Ent. Rundsch. 41:2. TL. India." (Cited from Bridges,1988)
∗ "Catopsilia pomona ab. matsuwakii Nomura, 1931 : Mushi 4:13. TL. Formosa." (Cited from Bridges,1988)

Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Catopsilia crocale crocale ; Godfrey,1916 : 115.
Catopsilia pomona ; Godfrey,1916 : 115.
Catopsilia crocale crocale ; Pendlebury,1923 : 27. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Ban Lan Sah Kah; Tai Sai River; Wat Kiriwong)
Catopsilia pomona catilla ; Pendlebury,1923 : 27. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Tai Sai River; Khao Ram)
Catopsilia crocale ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Catopsilia pomona ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Catopsilia crocale ; Godfrey,1930 : 228. (all over)
Catopsilia pomona ; Godfrey,1930 : 229. (all over)
Catopsilia crocale ; Godfrey,1932a : 265. (P)
Catopsilia pomona f. catilla ; Godfrey,1932a : 265. (P)
Catopsilia crocale alcmene ; Davidson & Macbeth,1938 : 71. (Lampang)
Catopsilia pomona hilaria ; Davidson & Macbeth,1938 : 71. (Prayao; Lampang)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Pinratana,1983 : 25,39,40, pl.20,21, fig.44.
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂f. hilaria ; Pinratana,1983 : 25, pl.20,21, figs.44,♂,♂(Un). (Bangkok; Chaiyaphum; Chanthaburi; Chiang Mai; Phang Nga; Prae; Petchaburi; Kanchanaburi; Krabi; Mae Hong Son; Nakhon Ratchasima; Nakhon Sri Thammarat; Nakhon Nayok; Songkhla; Saraburi; Tak)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀f. pomona ; Pinratana,1983 : 25, pl.20,21, figs.44,♀,♀(Un). (Bangkok; Chaiyaphum; Chanthaburi; Chiang Mai; Chonburi; Kanchanaburi; Loei; Nakhon Nayok; Nakhon Ratchasima; Prae; Ratchaburi; Saraburi; Songkhla; Tak; Uthai Thani; Trang)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀f. catilla ; Pinratana,1983 : 25, pl.20,21, fig.44,♀(Un). (Bangkok; Chaiyaphum; Chantaburi; Chiang Mai; Kanchanaburi; Nakhon Ratchasima; Ratchaburi; Tak)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂f. alcmeone ; Pinratana,1983 : 25, pl.20,21, fig.44,♂(Un). (Chiayaphum; Chanthaburi; Lop Buri; Kanchanaburi; Mae Hong Son; Nakhon Nayok; Nakhon Ratchasima; Ratchaburi; Saraburi; Songkhla; Uthai Thani)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀f. jugurtha ; Pinratana,1983 : 25, pl.20,21, fig.44,♀. (Bangkok; Chiang Mai; Chonburi; Chumphon; Nan; Narathiwat; Nakhon Sri Thammarat; Prae; Rayong; Sara Buri; Songkhla; Tak)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀f. crocale ; Pinratana,1983 : 25, pl.20,21, fig.44,♀. (Ang Thong; Chiang Mai; Chonburi; Kanchanaburi; Nakhon Ratchasima; Prae; Rayong; Sara Buri; Songkhla; Tak; Uthai Thani)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 252, fig.53,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Mu; Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 18. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Ban Na Lak; Ban Gok Tum; Ubon Ratchathani: Phu Chong Na Yoi; Kaeng Tana; Nam Tok Soi Sawan; Kaeng E-Keow)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 46-47. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Hin Khan; Ubon Ratchathani: Kaen Tana)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 65, fig.54,♂. (Umphang)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 46, fig.41,♂. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Catopsillia pomona pomona ; RDPB & DNP,2006-2008 : Butterflies in Hala-Bala Forest, fig.[♀](Un). (Narathiwat: Hala Bala) (last update: 2006.12.31 ; accessed: 2024.04.11)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 166, pl.55, figs.Pi48, f. hilaria ♂,♂,♂(Un) ; pl.56, figs.Pi48, f. alcmeone ♂,♂,♂(Un), f. jugurtha ♀,♀,♀, f. pomona ♀,♀(Un), ♀(f. crocale),♀(f. nivescens), ♀(f. catilla,Un). (Bangkok; Chiang Mai; Song Khla)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies, figs.♂,♂(Un)+♀(Un),♀(Un),♀(Un),♀(Un). (Koh Samui; Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2022.10.15)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 150, figs. f. alcmeone♂,♂(Un), f. hilaria♂,♂(Un), f. jugritta♀,♀(Un), f. crocale♀,♀(Un), f. pomona♀,♀(Un), f. pomona♀,♀(Un), f. catilla♀,♀(Un), f. nivescens♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Dao; Doi Suthep; Chiang Mai; Doi Inthanon; Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Khiewo; Mouk Lek; Sarika; Nakohn Nayok; Wan Nam Khiewo; Bangkok; Bang Phra; Bang Sarrey; Pattaya; Kao Khiewo; Kratching WF; Kao Soi Dao; Mae Sohd; Doi Musso; Sai York Noi; Erawan WF; Kao Phang WF; Wang Kheo; Kanchanaburi; Kaeng Krachan; Ka Chong; Haadjai; Satun; Than To WF.)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 166, pl.55, figs.Pi48,♂,♂(f. hiralia),♂(Un); pl.56, fig.Pi48,♂,♂(f. alcmeone),♂(Un),♀,♀(f. jugurtha),♀,♀(f. pomona),♀(Un),♀(f. crocale),♀(f. nivescens),♀(Un,f. catilla). (Bangkok; Chiang Mai; Songkhla)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs., Early Stages. (Chiang Mai; Phetchabun; Nakhon Ratchasima; Sa Kaeo; Bangkok; Ratchaburi; Phetchaburi; Nakhon Si Thammarat) (accessed: 2024.04.13)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 200-201, figs.Abb.Pi-089-095,167-182. (Phang Nga)
Catopsilia pomona ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 87. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 50, pl.26, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un),3,♀,4,♀(Un),5,♂,6,♂(Un),7,♀,8,♀(Un). (Luang Prabang; Tha Ngone; Pakse; Nam Moh; Vientiane; Ban Houei Sai; Nam Ngum Dam)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂f. alcmeone ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 203, pl.40, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Vang Vieng; Thakhek)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂f. hilaria ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 203, pl.40, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Xam Neua; Vientiane)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀f. jugurtha ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 203, pl.40, fig.♀. (Thakhek)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀f. catilla ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 203, pl.40, fig.♀(Un). (Vang Vieng)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀f. pomona ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 203, pl.40, figs.♀,♀(Un). (Xam Neua)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 40. (Namdhua / Thakhek / Nhahin / Laksao)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Onodera,2009b : 38. (Houaphan: Phu Phan)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 43.
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Onodera,2022 : 19, pl.74, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Bolikhamxai: Thabok; Xiengkhouang: Tha; Savannakhet)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs,♀,♀(Un). (Botum Sakor NP.)
Catopsilia pomona ; Onodera,2008 : 60. (Mondolkiri: Romonea)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Kosterin,2019 : 91. (Koh Kong; Kep)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Kosterin,2019b : 26. (Ratanakiri; Mondulkiri)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Kosterin,2020 : 314. (Siem Reap; Stueng Treng)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Chartier & Kosterin,2022 : 114. (Kandal; Kep; Koh Kong; Kampot; Mondulkiri; Oddar Meanchey; Phnom Penh; Preah Sihanouk; Ratanakiri; Siem Reap; Stueng Treng)

[ VIETNAM ]
Catopsilia crocale ; Lemée,1950 : 6. (Hagiang; Hanoi)
Catopsilia jugurtha ; Lemée,1950 : 6. (Hagiang)
Catopsilia pomona ; Lemée,1950 : 6. (Hagiang)
Catopsilia crocale crocale f.♂. flavescens ; Metaye,1957 : 86. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia crocale crocale f.♂. alcmene ; Metaye,1957 : 86. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia crocale crocale f.♀. jugurtha ; Metaye,1957 : 86. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia crocale crocale f.♀. crocale ; Metaye,1957 : 86. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia pomona pomona f.♂. hilaria ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia pomona pomona f.♀. nivescens ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia pomona pomona f.♀. catilla ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia pomona pomona f.♀. bidotata ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 19, figs.6:10,♂,11,♀,10:30(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Catopsilia pomona ; Vu,2003 : 56. (Phu Quoc)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Luong et al.,2004 : 2, 34, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Catopsilia pomona ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 39. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 14, figs.Pi-26,♂,♀,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dai Duc Me; Bin Thuan: Dong Tien)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Nihira,2009 : 98. (Phu Quoc)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 18. (N / C / S)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 39, figs.23,♂,23v♂(Un),24,♀,24v♀(Un),25,♀,25v♀(Un),26,♀,26v♀(Un). (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Catopsilia pomona pomona ; Saito et al.,2017 : 77. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Ket)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 10♂ 5♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 8♂ 4♀ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 10♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 5♂ 4♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 5♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sa Kaeo : 4♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bangkok : 3♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 6♂ 1♀ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 1♂ 1♀ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 2♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.) : 6♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 12♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Xaignabouri : 1♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is very common in everywhere at low to high elevations (Alt. 10 - 2200m). Both sexes visit flowers and males occasionally come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.


Literature

Fabricius, J.C.,1775 : Systema Entomologiae, sistens Insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus.
Flensbvrgi et Lipsiae, Libraria Kortii 8vo :[i-xxx] + 832pp.

Cramer, P.,1775-1780 :
De uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America. Papillons exotiques des trois parties du monde l'Asie, l'Afrique et l'Amerique.
Amsteldam, S.J.Baalde; Barthelemy Wild and J. Van Schoonhoven & Comp.
1(1/7):i-xxx, 1-16, 1-132, pls.1-84 ([31 December]1775), (8):133-155, pls.85-96 (1776); 2(9/16):1-151, pls.97-192 (1777); 3(17/22):1-128, pls.193-264 (1779), (23/24):129-176, pls.265-288 (1780); 4(25/26):1-28, pls.289-304 (1780)

Goeze, J.A.E.1779 : Entomologische Beyträge zu des Ritter Linnè zwölften Ausgabe des Natursystems.
3(1):40 + 390 pp, Elipzig. Widmann.

Stoll, C.,1780-1782 :
In Cramer, De uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America. Papillons exotiques des trois parties du monde l'Asie, l'Afrique et l'Amerique.
Amsteldam, S.J.Baalde; Barthelemy Wild and J. Van Schoonhoven & Comp.
4(26/28):29-90, pls.305-336 (1780), (29/31):91-164, pls.337-372 (1781), (32/34):165-252, pls.373-400 (1782)

Herbst, J.F.W.,1792 : In Jablonsky, Natursystem aller bekannten in- und auslandischen Insecten; Schmetterlinge. 5.
Berlin, Pauli. 230 pp, 37 pls.

Fabricius, J.C.,1793 : Entomologia systematica emedata et aucta. secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus.
3(1): [iv] + 488 pp. Copenhagen. C.G.Proft.

Fabricius, J.C.,1798 : Entomologia systematica emedata et aucta. secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus.
Supplemente : [iv] + 572 pp. Copenhagen. C.G.Proft.

Godart, J.B.,1818-1824 : in Latreille & Godart, Encyclopedie methodique.
Histoire naturelle des insectes. volume 9. Paris :828pp.

Wallace, A.R.,1867 : On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian Regions.
Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3)4(3):301-416, pls.6-9.

Swinhoe, C.,1885 : On the Lepidoptera of Bombay and the Decan.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1885(1):124-148, pl.9.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1910 : 2. Familie: Pieridae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9
153-168. (2.Apr.1910)

Sonan, J.,1931 : Notes on some butterflies from Formosa. (2).
Zephyras 3(3/4):194-206, pls 15-17.

Corbet, A.S.,1941 : Observations on Certain of the Fabrician Names onf Indo-Australian Rhopalocera (Lepid.)
Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)10(6):98-106.

Dufrane, A.,1947 : Pieridae
Bull. Annls. Soc. ent. Belg. 83(1/2):46‑73.

Murayama, S.,1961 : An unrecorded and some aberrant butterflies from Formosa
Trans. lepid. Soc. Jap. 11(4):54-61.

Bridges, C.A.,1988 : Catalogue of Papilionidae & Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)
C.A.Bridges, Urbana, Illinois, USA.


Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂ Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀ Catopsilia pomona pomona ♀
♀, Lampang, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Catopsilia pomona pomona ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

1996.10.31 - 2024.04.30.