Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus  (Hewitson,[1865])

Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Un. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Un.
♂, Phrae, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Up.
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Khammouan, Laos. (photo by A.M.Cotton)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Un. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Un.
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton) ♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand.(photo by A.M.Cotton)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Un. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Un.
♀, Phetchaburi, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Up. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Un.
♀, Chiang Rai, Thailand. (photo by A.M.Cotton)

ON : Papilio zaleucus Hewitson,[1865]
OD : Ill. exot. Butts. 3:[5], pl.[3], figs.24,♂,25,♀ (Papilio VIII).
TL : Burmah. (♂♀, NHML)
Distribution : Myanmar, Thailand, N.Laos, W.Cambodia, N.W.Vietnam,
China.

● ssp.zaleucus
transition zone of varuna and zaleucus
ssp.astorion
ssp.varuna
Atrophaneura varuna map

Synonyms

Byasa zaleucus ♂v.punctata Evans,1923 : J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 29(1):231. TL. Shan States, S.Burma. (♂, NHML)
Papilio zaleucus f.indiv.♂anomala Rousseau-Decelle,1947 : Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:128. TL. "Kalataung, Tavoy, Birmanie" (♂)
Atrophaneura varuna liziensis Zhao,1997 : in Chao & Wang, Lepidoptera of China 3 : figs.♂,♂(Un). TL. Lizi, Xizhang.


Type Materials Information

zaleucus ;
♂, Type (red), Rh10831, Burmah. (NHML, examined) ; ♀, Type (red), Rh10832, Burmah. (NHML, examined)
punctata ; ♂, Type (red), Rh10830, Dec.1922. Kawkareik, Thinyanyaung, Tenasserim. (NHML, examined)
liziensis ; ♂, Holotype, Jul.1992. Lizi, Xizhang. (Chengdu Museum)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio zaleucus ; Godfrey,1916 : 109. (Chonburi: Hup Bon)
Papilio varuna astorion ; Godfrey,1927 : 119. (N)
Papilio zaleucus ; Godfrey,1927 : 119. (N)
Papilio varuna astorion ; Godfrey,1930 : 207. (Me Wong; Chiang Mai)
Papilio zaleucus ; Godfrey,1930 : 207. (Prae: Me Song forest; Chiang Mai; Chonburi: Sriracha; Me Wong)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; Pinratana,1977 : 11, figs.P6c♂,♀. (exept P)
Parides varuna zaleucus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 13,39, pl.9, figs.6,♂,♀. (Chiang Mai; Chaiyaphum; Chonburi; Chanthaburi; Ratchaburi)
Parides varuna astorion ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 13,39, pl.10, figs.7b♂. (Chiang Mai)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 64, fig.37,♂. (Umphang: Tha Sai; Umphang)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 45, fig.23,♂. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 66, pl.4, figs.P8,♂,♂(Un),♂,♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Mai; Chiang Rai)
Atrophaneura varuna astorion ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 68, pl.5, fig.9b♂(Un). (Chiang Mai: Doi Pha Hom Pok; Chiang Rai: Wiang Pa Pao)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; Racheli & Cotton,2010 : 29-31. (continental)
Atrophaneura varuna astorion ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 114, figs.♀,♀(Un). (Ratchaburi)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 113, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Khun Lao Village; Maethro; Bang Salok; Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Khiewo; Nakohn Nayork; Wan Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Pliewn WF; Khao Sabap; Kratchin WF; Khao Khiewo; Sai York Noi; Ratchaburi)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 66, pl.4, figs.P8a♂,♂(Un),♂,♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Mai; Chiang Rai; Kaeng Krachan; Khao Ang Rue Nai)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Okamoto et.al.,2013 : 6. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Chiang Mai; Phetchabun) (accessed: 2021.06.06)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio zaleucus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1914 : 146. (Laos)
Papilio zaleucus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 8. (Laos)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 45, not fig. (Nam Tok Tat; Luang Prabang; Vang Vieng)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Masui & Uehara,1994 : 8, pl.2, figs.1,♂,2,♀. (Louang Namtha)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.3, fig.♂. (Vang Vieng)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 326-327. (Thabok; Phou Pha Man: Koun Ngun)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; Racheli & Cotton,2010 : 29-31, figs.♀,♀,♀(Un). (W.Laos)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Suwa et al.,2019 : 5, fig.9,♀. (Oudomxay; Nam Kat; Nam Mat; Phou Phung; Tham Piu; Vang Vieng)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; Racheli & Cotton,2010 : 29-31. (W)

[ VIETNAM ]
Papilio zaleucus ; Jordan,1909 : 30. (Tonkin)
Papilio zaleucus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1914 : 146. (Annam)
Papilio zaleucus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 8. (Tonkin / Annam)
Papilio zaleucus ; Metaye,1957 : 81. (N / C)
Atrophaneura zaleucus ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 27, pl.3, figs.1a♂,1b♀. (N: Muong Nhe / C: Cua Rao (Annam) / S: Huong-Va)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ; Racheli & Cotton,2010 : 29-31. (NW)
Atrophaneura zaleucus zaleucus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 11. (N / C)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 6♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 6♂ 5♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 4♂ 1♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 7♂ 6♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 1♀ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 8♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 3♂ 2♀ (incl.photo by M.Hayashi).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Bolikhamxai : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes
The butterfly is locally common in montane forest at low to high elevations (alt.300m - 1800m).
The population in Phetchaburi and Ratchaburi, northern part of Peninsular Thailand is highly variable and unstable. It seems intermediate between ssp.zaleucus to ssp.varuna. In the NHML, There are several specimens (from S.Myanmar: Tavoy and Tenasserim) the same as this form. Therefore, the area from Phetchaburi to Tenasserim can be considered as a transition area for both subspecies. Furthermore, these intermediate individuals occasionally occur in N.Thailand, C.Laos, and C.Vietnam. The specimens conventionally recorded as ssp.astorion in Thailand are considered to be either misidentified Atrophaneura aidoneus or similar variations of ssp.zaleucus.

Literature

Hewitson, W.C.,[1862]-[1866] :
Illustrations of new species of exotic Butterflies, selected chiefly from the Collections of W.Wilson Saunders and William C. Hewitson.
3:iv + [124]pp, 60 pls. Van Voorst, London.

Evans, W.H.,1923 : The Identification of Indian Butterflies.
J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 29(1):230-260, 9 pls.

Rousseau-Decelle, G.,1947 : Contribution a letude des Papilio de la faune Indo-Oceanienne (Lep. Papilionidae)
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51:128-133.

Zhao, L.,1997 : Atrophaneura varuna liziensis Zhao (subspecies nov.),
in Chao, L. & H.Y.WANG, Lepidoptera of China 3. Papilionidae, Danaidae, Pieridae, Amathusiidae.
The Taiwan Museum, Taipei.

Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Phetchabun, Thailand.
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.

Intermediate form between varuna and zaleucus
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂ Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♂
♂, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by M.Hayashi)
Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀ Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus ♀
♀, Phetchaburi, Thailand. (photo by M.Hayashi)

1996.09.26 - 2021.09.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.