Troides helena cerberus  (Felder & Felder, 1865)

Troides helena cerberus ♂ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♂ Un. Troides helena cerberus ♀ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♀ Un.
♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Troides helena cerberus ♂ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♂ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♂ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♀ Up.
♂, Phrae, Thailand. ♂, Ranong, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Rai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ON : Papilio cerberus Felder & Felder, 1865
OD : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (1):19-21.
TL : India septentrionalis: Bengalia, Assam. (NHML)
Distribution :
Sikkim, Assam, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos,
Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Langkawi, W.Malaysia, Singapore.
Troides helena cerberus map

Synonyms

Papilio helena cerberus ♂f.eumagos Jordan, 1908 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:24. TL. Assam.
Papilio helena cerberus ♀f.azelia Jordan, 1908 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:24. TL. Assam.
Papilio helena cerberus ♀f.gypsothelia Jordan, 1908 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:24. TL. Tenasserim.
Ornithoptera helena euthycrates Fruhstorfer, 1913 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 27(3):134. TL. Than-Moi, Tonkin.
Troides helena cerberus f.chongkiakwangi Tung, 1982 : Tokurana 4:7-8, 16,figs.1-C, B♀,C♀. TL. Malay Pen : Tapah Hills; Cameron HL; Ulu Groh.


Type Materials Information

cerberus : ♂, Type, Silhet. (NHML, examined)
euthycrates : 1♂ 1♀, Syntypes (blue), Juni-Juli. Than-Moi, Tonkin. H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio helena cerberus ; Pendlebury,1923 : 22. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Luang)
Papilio helena cerberus ; Godfrey,1930 : 206. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram)
Papilio helena cerberus ; Godfrey,1932a : 263. (P)
Troides helena cerberus ; Pinratana,1977 : 3, figs.P2,♂,♀, 4, fig.P2,♀. (E / P)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ohya,1983 : 275, pl.114, figs.5,♂(Chiang Dao),7,♂(Chiang Dao). (Thailand)
Troides helena cerberus ; Haugum & Low,1985 : 249. (Thailand)
Troides helena cerberus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 11,39, pl.3, figs.2,♂,♀(f.eumagos), pl.4, figs.2,♂,♀(f.cerberus). (Chiang Mai; Nakhon Nayok; Tak; Chanthaburi; Ranong; Trang; Pattani; Satun)
Troides helena cerberus ; Matsuka,2001 : 187-188. (N: Chiang Dao; Chiang Mai; Doi Inthanon; Mae Mo / C: Thung Salaeng Luang; Phu Khieo; Doi Mussoe; Mae Sot; Thung Yai; Nakhon Nayok; Khao Khieo ; Khao Sa Bap / P: Ranong; Thung Na Kha; Khao Chong; Thale Ban; Pattani; Than To WF; Phuket I; Tarutao I.)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 62, pl.2, figs.P3,♂,♀,(f.cerberus), ♂,♀.(f.eumagos). (Chiang Mai; Wiang Pa Pao)
Troides helena cerberus ; L.Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, figs. (Koh Samui; Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2021.06.06)
Troides helena cerberus ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 111, figs.♂,♂(Un),f.cerberus; ♂,♂(Un),f.eumagos; ♀,♀(Un),f.cerberus; ♀,♀(Un),f.cerberus; ♀,♀(Un),f.eumagos. (Chiang Dao; Doi Inthanon; Khun Lao Village; Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Khiewo; Nakohn Nayok; Pliewn WF; Kaeng Chai; Mae Sohd; Doi Musso; Thung Yai; Khlong Naka; Ka Chong; Thaleban; Than To WF; Tarutao Is.)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 62, pl.2, figs.P3,♂,♀,(f.cerberus), ♂,♀.(f.eumagos). (Chiang Mai; Wiang Pa Pao)
Troides helena cerberus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Chiang Mai; Phetchabun; Trat) (accessed: 2021.06.06)
Troides helena cerberus ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 149-150, figs.Abb.Pa-042-047. (Phang Nga)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio helena f.♂.cerberus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Laos)
Papilio helena f.♀.aselia [sic] ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Thado)
Papilio helena f.♀.gypsothelia ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Laos)
Troides helena cerberus ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 45, pl.1, figs.5,♂,6.♂(Un),7.♂,8.♂(Un). (Luang Prabang; Nam Moh; Ban Houei Sai; Vang Vieng; Phatong; Nam Ngum Dam)
Troides helena cerberus ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.2, figs.♂,♀. (Luang Phrabang; Phong Saly)
Troides helena cerberus ; Matsuka,2001 : 188. (Phongsali; Muang Khoua; Nam Ngum Dam; Oudom Xay; Louang Namtha; Ban Houayxay; Louang Phrabang; Muang Xaignabouri; Muang Vangvieng; Lak Sao)
Troides helena cerberus ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 321-322. (Thabok; Lak Sao; Hinboun: Phou Pha Man)
Troides helena cerberus ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.
Troides helena cerberus ; Suwa et al.,2013 : 6. (Thabok; Lak Xao; Oudom Xai; Phou Phoung; Bhamlong; Nahin; Vang Vieng)
Troides helena ; Suwa et al.,2019 : 5. (Chamlong; Nam Kat; Oudomsay)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Troides helena cerberus ; Ohya,1983 : 275. (Cambodia)

[ VIETNAM ]
Troides helena cerberus ; Fruhstorfer,[1903] : 167. (Tonkin: Than Moi)
Papilio helena cerberus ♀f.gypsothelia ; Jordan,1909 : 24. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♂.cerberus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1914 : 146. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♂.cerberus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 210. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♂.cerberus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♀.aselia [sic] ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♀.gypsothelia ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena cerberus f.♂.cerberus ; Metaye,1957 : 80. (N)
Papilio helena cerberus f.♀.aselia [sic] ; Metaye,1957 : 80. (N)
Papilio helena cerberus f.♀.gypothelia ; Metaye,1957 : 80. (N)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ohya,1983 : 275. (Vietnam)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Haugum & Low,1985 : 251. (Tonkin: Than Moi)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 13, figs.3:3,♂,4,♀,9:2(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Troides helena cerberus ; Shinkai,1999 : 47. (N:Tam Dao / S: Bao Lac)
Troides helena cerberus ; Matsuka,2001 : 188. (S)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Matsuka,2001 : 188. (N: Tam Dao; Than Moi; Cuc Phuong)
Troides helena ; Vu,2003 : 56. (Phu Quoc)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Luong et al.,2004 : 1, 17, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Troides helena cerberus ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 7, figs.pa-2,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 24-25, pl.1, figs.a♂,b♀. (N: Cho Moi; Than Moi; Hanoi; Na Hang; Ba Be; Tam Dao; Ba Vi; Cuc Phuong; Cat Ba; Bai Tu Long / C: Pu Huong; Ben En; Pu Mat; Vu Quang)
Troides helena cerberus ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 24-25, pl.1, figs.c♂,d♀. (C: Nui Chua; Bi Doup/Nui Ba; Da Teh / S: Dong Sai; Cat Tien)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 11. (N)
Troides helena cerberus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 11. (C / S)
Troides helena cerberus ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 77. (S: Nui Cam)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 4♂ 1♀ (RIEB) (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 2♂ (RIEB) (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 10♂ 3♀ (RIEB) (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 5♂ 2♀ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 1♂ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 1♀ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 4♂ (photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 4♂ 2♀ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 1♂ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 2♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun (Koh Tarutao) : 2♂ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♂ 1♀ (photo & photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Khammouan : 4♂ 3♀ (photo by K.Saito).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Vinh Phuc : 3♂ 1♀ (photo by K.Saito).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 1♂ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is common in woodlands at low to high elevations (alt.30m - 2000m). Males are frequently observed coming to the streams to suck water during the dry season in N.Thailand,
The taxon is highly variable in both sexes. Some authors treated euthycrates as a good subspecies. However, there are individual variations within the same locality that make it difficult to separate them clearly. Therefore I consider it is a synonym of ssp.cerberus.


Literature

Felder, C. & Felder, R.,1865-1875 :
Rhopalocera. In Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band:
Abtheilung. Wien : vi + 548 + [1] pp in 5 parts, 140 pls.

Jordan, K.,1908 : Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde
9:17-24. (10.Nov.1908)

Fruhstorfer, H.,1913 : Neue Indo-Australiche Rhopaloceren.
Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 27(3):130-139.

Tung, V.W.Y.,1982 : The population genetics of Troides species of Peninsular Malaysia and descriptions of two new female forms Papilionidae)
Tokurana 4:1-21.

Ohya, T.,1983 : Birdwing Butterflies
Kodansha, Tokyo. 331 pp, 136 pls.

Haugum, J. & Low, A.M.,1985 : A Monograph of the Birdwing Butterflies. Vol.2, part.3. Troides; helena & aeacus groups
E.J.Brill. Scandinavian Science Press LTD. Leiden, Copenhagen.

Matsuka, H.,2001 : Natural History of Birdwing Butterflies
Matsuka shuppan. 367 pp.


Troides helena cerberus ♂ Troides helena cerberus ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Mae Hong Son, Thailand.
Troides helena cerberus ♂ Troides helena cerberus ♂
♂, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Troides helena cerberus ♂ Troides helena cerberus ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Rai, Thailand.

1996.09.26 - 2021.11.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.