Troides helena cerberus  (Felder & Felder,1865)

Troides helena cerberus ♂ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♂ Un. Troides helena cerberus ♀ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♀ Un.
♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Troides helena cerberus ♂ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♂ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♂ Up. Troides helena cerberus ♀ Up.
♂, Phrae, Thailand. ♂, Ranong, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Rai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

ON : Papilio cerberus Felder & Felder,1865
OD : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (1):19-21.
TL : India septentrionalis: Bengalia, Assam. (NHML)
Distribution :
Sikkim, Assam, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos,
Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Langkawi, W.Malaysia, Singapore.
Troides helena cerberus map

Synonyms

Papilio helena cerberus ♂f.eumagos Jordan,1908 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:24. TL. Assam.
Papilio helena cerberus ♀f.azelia Jordan,1908 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:24. TL. Assam.
Papilio helena cerberus ♀f.gypsothelia Jordan,1908 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:24. TL. Tenasserim.
Ornithoptera helena euthycrates Fruhstorfer,1913 : Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 27(3):134. TL. Than-Moi, Tonkin.
Troides helena cerberus f.chongkiakwangi Tung,1982 : Tokurana 4:7-8, 16,figs.1-C, B♀,C♀. TL. Malay Pen : Tapah Hills; Cameron HL; Ulu Groh.


Type Materials Information

cerberus : ♂, Type, Silhet. (NHML, examined)
euthycrates : 1♂ 1♀, Syntypes (blue), Juni-Juli. Than-Moi, Tonkin. H.Fruhstorfer (NHML, examined)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Papilio helena cerberus ; Pendlebury,1923 : 22. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Luang)
Papilio helena cerberus ; Godfrey,1930 : 206. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram)
Papilio helena cerberus ; Godfrey,1932a : 263. (P)
Troides helena cerberus ; Pinratana,1977 : 3, figs.P2,♂,♀, 4, fig.P2,♀. (E / P)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ohya,1983 : 275, pl.114, figs.5,♂(Chiang Dao),7,♂(Chiang Dao). (Thailand)
Troides helena cerberus ; Haugum & Low,1985 : 249. (Thailand)
Troides helena cerberus ; Pinratana & Eliot,1992 : 11,39, pl.3, figs.2,♂,♀(f.eumagos), pl.4, figs.2,♂,♀(f.cerberus). (Chiang Mai; Nakhon Nayok; Tak; Chanthaburi; Ranong; Trang; Pattani; Satun)
Troides helena cerberus ; Matsuka,2001 : 187-188. (N: Chiang Dao; Chiang Mai; Doi Inthanon; Mae Mo / C: Thung Salaeng Luang; Phu Khieo; Doi Mussoe; Mae Sot; Thung Yai; Nakhon Nayok; Khao Khieo ; Khao Sa Bap / P: Ranong; Thung Na Kha; Khao Chong; Thale Ban; Pattani; Than To WF; Phuket I; Tarutao I.)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 62, pl.2, figs.P3,♂,♀,(f.cerberus), ♂,♀.(f.eumagos). (Chiang Mai; Wiang Pa Pao)
Troides helena cerberus ; L.Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, figs. (Koh Samui; Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2021.06.06)
Troides helena cerberus ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 111, figs.♂,♂(Un),f.cerberus; ♂,♂(Un),f.eumagos; ♀,♀(Un),f.cerberus; ♀,♀(Un),f.cerberus; ♀,♀(Un),f.eumagos. (Chiang Dao; Doi Inthanon; Khun Lao Village; Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Khiewo; Nakohn Nayok; Pliewn WF; Kaeng Chai; Mae Sohd; Doi Musso; Thung Yai; Khlong Naka; Ka Chong; Thaleban; Than To WF; Tarutao Is.)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 62, pl.2, figs.P3,♂,♀,(f.cerberus), ♂,♀.(f.eumagos). (Chiang Mai; Wiang Pa Pao)
Troides helena cerberus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Chiang Mai; Phetchabun; Trat) (accessed: 2021.06.06)

[ LAOS ]
Papilio helena f.♂.cerberus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Laos)
Papilio helena f.♀.aselia [sic] ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Thado)
Papilio helena f.♀.gypsothelia ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Laos)
Troides helena cerberus ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 45, pl.1, figs.5,♂,6.♂(Un),7.♂,8.♂(Un). (Luang Prabang; Nam Moh; Ban Houei Sai; Vang Vieng; Phatong; Nam Ngum Dam)
Troides helena cerberus ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 200, pl.2, figs.♂,♀. (Luang Phrabang; Phong Saly)
Troides helena cerberus ; Matsuka,2001 : 188. (Phongsali; Muang Khoua; Nam Ngum Dam; Oudom Xay; Louang Namtha; Ban Houayxay; Louang Phrabang; Muang Xaignabouri; Muang Vangvieng; Lak Sao)
Troides helena cerberus ; Cotton & Racheli,[2007] : 321-322. (Thabok; Lak Sao; Hinboun: Phou Pha Man)
Troides helena cerberus ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 41.
Troides helena cerberus ; Suwa et al.,2013 : 6. (Thabok; Lak Xao; Oudom Xai; Phou Phoung; Bhamlong; Nahin; Vang Vieng)
Troides helena ; Suwa et al.,2019 : 5. (Chamlong; Nam Kat; Oudomsay)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Troides helena cerberus ; Ohya,1983 : 275. (Cambodia)

[ VIETNAM ]
Troides helena cerberus ; Fruhstorfer,[1903] : 167. (Tonkin: Than Moi)
Papilio helena cerberus ♀f.gypsothelia ; Jordan,1909 : 24. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♂.cerberus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1914 : 146. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♂.cerberus ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♀.aselia [sic] ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena f.♀.gypsothelia ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1921 : 7. (Tonkin)
Papilio helena cerberus f.♂.cerberus ; Metaye,1957 : 80. (N)
Papilio helena cerberus f.♀.aselia [sic] ; Metaye,1957 : 80. (N)
Papilio helena cerberus f.♀.gypothelia ; Metaye,1957 : 80. (N)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ohya,1983 : 275. (Vietnam)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Haugum & Low,1985 : 251. (Tonkin: Than Moi)
Troides helena cerberus ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 13, figs.3:3,♂,4,♀,9:2(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Troides helena cerberus ; Shinkai,1999 : 47. (N:Tam Dao / S: Bao Lac)
Troides helena cerberus ; Matsuka,2001 : 188. (S)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Matsuka,2001 : 188. (N: Tam Dao; Than Moi; Cuc Phuong)
Troides helena ; Lien,2003 : 56. (Phu Quoc)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Hao et al.,2004 : 1, 17, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Troides helena cerberus ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 7, figs.pa-2,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 24-25, pl.1, figs.a♂,b♀. (N: Cho Moi; Than Moi; Hanoi; Na Hang; Ba Be; Tam Dao; Ba Vi; Cuc Phuong; Cat Ba; Bai Tu Long / C: Pu Huong; Ben En; Pu Mat; Vu Quang)
Troides helena cerberus ; Monastyrskii,2007 : 24-25, pl.1, figs.c♂,d♀. (C: Nui Chua; Bi Doup/Nui Ba; Da Teh / S: Dong Sai; Cat Tien)
Troides helena euthycrates ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 11. (N)
Troides helena cerberus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 11. (C / S)
Troides helena cerberus ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 77. (S: Nui Cam)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 4♂ 1♀ (RIEB) (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 2♂ (RIEB) (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 10♂ 3♀ (RIEB) (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 5♂ 2♀ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 1♂ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 1♀ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 4♂ (photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 4♂ 2♀ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 1♂ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 2♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun (Koh Tarutao) : 2♂ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♂ 1♀ (photo & photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Khammouan : 4♂ 3♀ (photo by K.Saito).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Vinh Phuc : 3♂ 1♀ (photo by K.Saito).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 1♂ (RIEB).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes
The butterfly is common in woodlands at low to high elevations (alt.30m - 2000m).
The males are frequently observed come to the streams to suck water during the dry season in N.Thailand,
The taxon is highly variable in both sexes. Some authors treated euthycrates as a good subspecies. However, there are individual variations within the same locality that make it difficult to separate them clearly. Therefore I consider it is a synonym of ssp.cerberus.

Literature

Felder, C. & R. Felder,1865-1875 :
Rhopalocera. In Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band:
Abtheilung. Wien : vi + 548 + [1] pp in 5 parts, 140 pls.

Jordan, K.,1908 : Die Indo-Australische Tagfalter. Papilionidae in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde
9:17-24. (10.Nov.1908)

Fruhstorfer, H.,1913 : Neue Indo-Australiche Rhopaloceren.
Deut. ent. Zeit. [Iris] 27(3):130-139.

Tung, V.W.Y.,1982 : The population genetics of Troides species of Peninsular Malaysia and descriptions of two new female forms Papilionidae)
Tokurana 4:1-21.

Ohya, T.,1983 : Birdwing Butterflies
Kodansha, Tokyo. 331 pp, 136 pls.

Haugum, J. & A.M. Low.,1985 : A Monograph of the Birdwing Butterflies. Vol.2, part.3. Troides; helena & aeacus groups
E.J.Brill. Scandinavian Science Press LTD. Leiden, Copenhagen.

Matsuka, H.,2001 : Natural History of Birdwing Butterflies
Matsuka shuppan. 367 pp.

Troides helena cerberus ♂ Troides helena cerberus ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Mae Hong Son, Thailand.
Troides helena cerberus ♂ Troides helena cerberus ♂
♂, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Troides helena cerberus ♂ Troides helena cerberus ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Rai, Thailand.

1996.09.26 - 2021.08.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.