Junonia almana almana  (Linnaeus,1758)

Junonia almana almana ♂ Up. Junonia almana almana ♂ Un. Junonia almana almana ♀ Up. Junonia almana almana ♀ Un.
♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Junonia almana almana ♂ Up. Junonia almana almana ♂ Un. Junonia almana almana ♂ Up. Junonia almana almana ♂ Un.
♂ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Junonia almana almana ♂ Up. Junonia almana almana ♂ Un. Junonia almana almana ♀ Up. Junonia almana almana ♀ Un.
♂, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. ♀, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.
Junonia almana almana ♂ Up. Junonia almana almana ♂ Un. Junonia almana almana ♂ Up. Junonia almana almana ♂ Un.
♂ (dsf), Nakhon Si Tammarat, Thailand. ♂ (dsf), Ranong, Thailand.

ON : Papilio almana Linnaeus,1758
OD : Syst. Nat. (ed.10) 1:472.
TL : "Asia" [Canton, S.China].
Distribution : Sri Lanka, India to Myanmar, Andamans, Thailand,
Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Hainan, China, Taiwan, S.Japan,
Langkawi, W.Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Simeulue, Nias,
Banjak, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumba, Sumbawa, Palawan, Philippines.
Junonia almana almana map

Synonyms

Papilio asterie Linnaeus,1758 : Syst. Nat. (ed.10) 1:472. TL. India.
Junonia asterie var. javana C. Felder,1862 : Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 12:487. TL. Batavia (Java).
Junonia asterie var.sumbae Doherty,1891 : J. asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt.2. 60(2):172. TL. Sumba ; Sumbawa.
* Precis xerophylla Roepke,1938 : Rhopal. Javan. :265. TL: Java.


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Junonia almana almana : Fruhstorfer,1906 : 352. (Siam)
Precis almana almana ; Godfrey,1916 : 126.
Precis almana javana ; Pendlebury,1923 : 38. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram)
Precis almana almana ; Godfrey,1927 : 123. (N)
Precis almana almana ; Godfrey,1930 : 272. (except P)
Precis almana javana ; Godfrey,1932a : 268. (P)
Precis almana almana ; Pinratana,1979 : 23, figs.N33,♂(dsf),♂(dsf,Un),♂(wsf),♂(wsf,Un). (Chiang Mai; Bangkok; Nonthaburi; Tak)
Junonia almana almana ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 33, pl.14, figs.36a♂,♀. (Chiang Mai; Tak; Nakhon Nayok; Bangkok; Chanthaburi; Rayong)
Junonia almana javana ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 33, pl.14, figs.36b♂. (Songkhla)
Junonia almana almana ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 25, fig.65.♂. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Huay Sing; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Nam Tok Kham Cha I; Ban Na Lak; Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Na Pho Krang; Phu Chong Na Yoi; Kaeng Tana; Nam Tok Soi Sawan; Kaeng E-Keow)
Junonia almana almana ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 50. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Hin Khan; Nam Tok Tad Ton)
Junonia almana almana ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 69, fig.139.♂. (Umphang)
Junonia almana almana ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 49, fig.107.♀. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Junonia almana almana ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 370, pl.159, figs.N37a♂,♂(Un),♂(dsf). (Bangkok)
Junonia almana javana ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 370, pl.159, figs.N37b♂,♂(Un),♂. (Krabi; Hat Yai)
Junonia almana almana ; Les Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, fig. (Koh Samui; Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2021.09.18)
Junonia almana almana ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 500, pl.223, figs.N385,♂,♂(Un),♂(dsf),♂,♂(Un),♂. (Bangkok / Krabi / Hat Yai)
Junonia almana almana ; Okamoto et.al.,2013 : 9. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Junonia almana almana ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, fig. (Bangkok) (accessed: 2021.09.18)
Junonia almana almana ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 58, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Suthep; Chiang Mai; Doi Inthanon; Phu Khiewo; Sarika; Nakohn Nayork; Wam Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Pliewn WF; Bang Sarrey; Wang Khaeo; Doi Musso)
Junonia almana javana ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 58, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Ka Chong; Sonkhla; Haadjai; Than To WF.)
Junonia almana almana ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 86. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Junonia almana almana ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 55, pl.49, figs.3.♂(dsf),4.♂(dsf.Un),5.♂(wsf),6.♂(wsf.Un). (no data)
Junonia almana almana ; Osada, Uemura & Uehara,1999 : 205, pl.50, figs.♂,♂(dsf). (Xam Neua; Oudomxay)
Junonia almana almana ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 41. (Namdhua; Thabeng; Thakhek; Nhahin; Laksao; Nakai)
Junonia almana almana ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 44.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Junonia almana almana ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : figs,♀,♀(Un). (Botum Sakor NP.)
Junonia almana almana ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 129. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Junonia almana ; Joannis,1901 : 321. (Tonkin: Cao Bang)
Junonia almana almana : Fruhstorfer,1906 : 352. (Tonkin / Annam)
Precis almana almana ; Fruhstorfer,1912 : 519. (Tonkin)
Precis almana almana ; Godfrey,1919 : 467. (S: Daban)
Precis almana almana ; Moulton,1923 : 130. (Pulo Condore)
Precis asterie ; Lemee,1950 : 12. (Hagiang)
Precis almana ; Lemee,1950 : 12. (Hagiang; Langson)
Precis almana almana f.hib.almana ; Metaye,1957 : 94. (N / C / S)
Precis almana almana f.aest.asterie ; Metaye,1957 : 94. (N / C / S)
Junonia almana almana ; Ikeda et al.,2000 : 30, figs.3:5.♂(WSF),6.♂(WSF,Un),fig.7.♂(DSF),8.♂(DSF,Un), fig.9:16(♂,genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Junonia almanae ; Lien,2003 : 57. (Phu Quoc)
Junonia almana almana ; Hao et al.,2004 : 6, 60, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Junonia almana ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 40. (Thua Thien Hue: A Luoi; Huong Thuy)
Junonia almana almana ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006b : 17, figs.N-23.♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Gung Re; Dong Nai; Bin Thuan: Dong Tien)
Junonia almana almana ; Nihira,2009 : 99. (Phu Quoc)
Junonia almana almana ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 33. (N / C / S)
Junonia almana almana ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 81. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Coto)
Junonia almana almana ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(1):123, pl.28, figs.4a♂(dsf),4b♂(dsf,Un),4c♂(wsf),4d♂(wsf,Un).


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 10♂ 2♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sa Kaeo : 1♀ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Si Thammarat : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♂ (photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Xaisomboun : 1♂ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes
The butterfly is locally common in dry grass field, open land and secondary forest at low to moderate elevations (alt.300m - 1000m).

Literature

Linnaeus, C.,1758 : Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis.
Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. (Edition 10). 1(Animalia):[iv]+824pp.

Felder, C.,1862 : Verzeichniss der von den Naturforschern der K.K.Fregatte "Novara" gesammelten Macrolepidopteren.
Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12:473-496.

Doherty, W.,1891 : The Butterflies of Sumba and Smbawa, with some Account of the Island of Sumba.
J. asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt.2. 60(2):141-197, pl.2.

Tsukada, E.,1985 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands. IV Nymphalidae (1).
Plapac Co., Ltd. 558 pp. 158.col.pls.

Junonia almana almana ♂ Junonia almana almana ♀
♂ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Sa Kaeo, Thailand.
Junonia almana almana ♂ Junonia almana almana ♂
♂, Phetchabun, Thailand. ♂, Yala, Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan)

2008.02.29 - 2021.09.30.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.