Miletus mallus  (Fruhstorfer, 1913)

Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un. Miletus mallus mallus ♀ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♀ Un.
♂, Lam Dong, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito) ♀, Lam Dong, Vietnam. (photo by K.Saito)
Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un. Miletus mallus mallus ♀ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♀ Un.
♂ (dsf), Sekong, Laos. ♀ (dsf), Sekong, Laos.
Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un.
♂, Sekong, Laos. ♂, Oudomxai, Laos. (photo by H.Onodera)
Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un. Miletus mallus mallus ♀ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♀ Un.
♂, Xieng Khouang, Laos. (photo by H.Onodera) ♀, Xieng Khouang, Laos. (photo by H.Onodera)
Miletus mallus mallus ♂ genitalia Miletus mallus mallus ♂ genitalia Miletus mallus mallus ♂ genitalia Miletus mallus mallus ♂ genitalia
♂ genitalia, Sekong, Laos.

Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un. Miletus mallus mallus ♀ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♀ Un.
♂ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un.
♂ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Up. Miletus mallus mallus ♂ Un.
♂ (dsf), Chaiyaphum, Thailand. ♂ (dsf), Phetchabun, Thailand.

ON : Gerydus croton mallus Fruhstorfer, 1913
OD : Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 9(10):310.
TL : Sud-Annam. (♂, NHML)
Distribution : Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam,
S.Yunnan.
Miletus mallus map

Synonym

'Gerydus gethusus Fruhstorfer, [1916] : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:816. TL. Chiem Hoa, Tonkin. (♂, NHML)'
Miletus bannanus Huang & Xue, 2004 : Neue Ent. Nachr. 57:155, pl.12a, figs.1(HT,♂),2(HT,♂Un). TL. 20km W of Meng-la, Xi-shuang-ban-na, S.Yunnan, China. (♂, EMIZ)


Type Material Information

bannanus ; Holotype ♂, 20.Jul.2003. 20km west of Meng-la, Xi-shuang-ban-na, S.Yunnan, China. H.Huang (EMIZ)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Miletus croton corus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.243, figs.L23b♂,♂(Un). ('Koh Tarutao; Khao Chong' [loc.err.]) (in part)
Miletus croton corus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.249, figs.L47b♂,♂(Un). ('Koh Tarutao; Khao Chong' [loc.err.]) (in part)
Miletus mallus shania ; Kimura et al.,2014 : 35, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Phu Kradung; Phu Khiewo) (in part)

[ LAOS ]
Miletus mallus mallus ; Onodera,2022 : 71, pl.203, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Xiengkhouang: Nachan)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Miletus mallus mallus ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 130. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)
Miletus mallus mallus ; Chartier & Kosterin,2022 : 120. (Koh Kong; Pursat)

[ VIETNAM ]
Gerydus croton mallus ; Seitz,1915-1927 : 816. (S.Annam: Plateau of Dran)
Gerydus croton mallus ; Metaye,1957 : 88. (N / C)
Gerydus gethusus ; Metaye,1957 : 88. (N)
'Miletus chinensis learchus ; Ikeda et al.,2001 : 48, figs.1:11,♂,12,♀,13,♀(Un),6:4(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)'
'Miletus mallus mallus ; Ikeda et al.,2001 : 48, figs.1:14,♀,15,♀(Un),16,♂,6:5(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)'
'Miletus mallus mallus ; Luong et al.,2004 : 9, 74, figs.♀,♀(Un). (Cuc Phuong)'
Miletus mallus ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 42. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Phong Dien)
Miletus mallus mallus ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,[2007] : 49, figs.L-6,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri)
Miletus mallus mallus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 47. (N / C / S)
Miletus mallus mallus ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 42. (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Mai : 10♂ 3♀ (1♂ genitalia dissected).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chaiyaphum : 2♂ (1♂ genitalia dissected).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Oudomxai : 1♂ 1♀ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Luang Phabang : 1♂ 1♀ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Xieng Khouang : 2♂ 2♀ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sekong : 2♂ 2♀ (1♂ genitalia dissected).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Gia Lai : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lam Dong : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The taxa mallus and shania differ in male genitalia, the markings on the UpF, and in size. Therefore, I consider them to be two distinct species. Furthermore, Miletus bannanus seems to be the same species as mallus in terms of genitalia and markings characteristics. I tentatively treat the name shania as a species, but the taxon gethusus may not belong to mallus. If this taxon is conspecific with shania, the specific name would be changed. Further taxonomic study is needed.

The butterfly is locally common in montane forests at moderate elevations (Alt. 550 - 1000m). In 2021, it was found in a place and confirmed that both mallus and shania occur sympatrically in Chiang Mai, N.Thailand. This species is found confined to broadleaf bamboo bushes in the forest, whereas Miletus shania prefers hilltops and forest edges. Males are territorial on shrubs or undergrowth in forests from 12:30 until sunset.
The male specimen shown in Ek-Amnuay,[2007],2012 as Miletus croton corus seems to be mallus and locality 'Koh Tarutao ; Khao Chong' is incorrect. Hitherto neither croton nor mallus has been recorded from peninsular Thailand.


Literature

Fruhstorfer, H.,1913 : Uebersicht der Gerydinae und Diagnosen neuer oder verkannter Formen (Lep., Lyc).
Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 9(8/9):242-247, 9(10):307-310, 9(11):341-344, 9(12):367-371.

Fruhstorfer, H.,[1916] : 8. Familie: Lycaenidae, 2. Subfamilie: Gerydinae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9.
809-816. (16.Dec.1916)

Eliot, J.N.,1961 : An analysis of the Genus Miletus (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).
Bull. Raffles Mus. 26:154-177, 24 figs.

Eliot, J.N.,1986 : A review of the Miletini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 53(1):1-105, 108 figs.

Huang H. & Xue, Y.P.,2004 : A new species of Miletus from the extreme south of Yunnan, China (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)
Neue Ent. Nachr. 57:155-160.


Miletus mallus ♂ Miletus mallus ♂
♂ (dsf), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂ (dsf), Chaiyaphum, Thailand.
Miletus mallus ♂ Miletus mallus ♂
♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂ (territorial behavior), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Miletus mallus ♂
♂ (territorial behavior), Chiang Mai, Thailand.

1999.07.24 - 2023.05.31.