Miletus chinensis learchus  Felder & Felder, [1865]

Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Un. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai (Doi Saket dist.), Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai (Doi Saket dist.), Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Un. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai (Doi Saket dist.), Thailand. ♀, Phrae, Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Un. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai (Doi Saket dist.), Thailand. ♀, Chanthaburi, Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Un. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Un.
♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand. ♀, Chanthaburi, Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Un. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Un.
♂, Trat, Thailand. ♀, Trat, Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Un. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Un.
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.), Thailand. ♀, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.), Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Un. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Up. Miletus chinensis learchus ♀ Un.
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ genitalia Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ genitalia
♂ genitalia, Chanthaburi, Thailand.

ON : Miletus learchus Felder & Felder, [1865]
OD : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (2):285, pl.35, fig.37,♂(Un).
TL : Cochin. (♂, NHML)
Distribution : Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Langkawi,
W.Malaysia (to North Perak).
transition zone of longeana and learchus
● ssp.learchus
Miletus chinensis learchus map

Synonyms

Miletus irroratus H.Druce, 1874 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874(1):106. TL. "Nahconchaisee" [Nakhon Chai Si, Nakhom Pathom], Siam. (♂, NHML)
Miletus archilochus kelantanus Corbet, 1938 : J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 18(2):248. TL. Tumpat, Kelantan, Malay Pen. (♀ Paratype, NHML)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Gerydus boisduvali irroratus ; Godfrey,1916 : 134.
Gerydus boisduvali irroratus ; Fruhstorfer,1915-1924 : 817. (Pechaburi River)
Gerydus boisduvali irroratus ; Godfrey,1927 : 125. (N)
Miletus boisduvali irroratus ; Godfrey,1930 : 311-312. (Chiang Mai; Prae: Me Song forest; Pak Jong; Bangkok; Pechaburi River)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Eliot,1961 : 162. (Siam)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Pinratana,1981 : 25, pl.3, fig.7,♂ ; pl.4, fig.12,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; Chantaburi; Loei; Kanchanaburi; Nakhon Nayok)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 256, fig.119,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Mu; Phu Shang)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 32. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Huay Sing; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Nam Tok Kham Cha I; Ban Na Lak; Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Na Pho Krang; Nam Tok Soi Sawan; Phu Hin Dang)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 52-53. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Ubon Ratchathani: Kaen Tana; Phu Pung; Don Far huan)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 47, fig.49,♂. (Nan: Mae Charim)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 536, pl.242, figs.L22,♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Sri Sawat Dam; Trat; 'Pong Pong Waterfall' [loc.err.])
Miletus croton croton ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.242, figs.L23a♀,♀. (in part)
Miletus croton corus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.243, fig.L23b♀. (in part)
Miletus mallus mallus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.243, figs.L24a♀,♀. (in part)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀(Un). (Koh Samui) (accessed: 2023.04.28)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 550, pl.248, figs.L46,♂('Pong Pong WF' [loc.err.],♂(Un,'Pong Pong WF' [loc.err.]),♀(Khao Soi Dao),♀(Khao Soi Dai,Un). (Sri Sawat Dam, Trat, 'Pong Pong WF' [loc.err.])
Miletus croton croton ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.248, figs.L47a♀(Phrae),♀(Phrae,Un). (in part)
Miletus croton corus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.249, fig.L47b♀. (in part)
Miletus mallus mallus ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.249, figs.L48a♀,♀(Un). (in part)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Kimura et al.,2014 : 34, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Phui; Doi Suthep; Chiang Mai; Ban Salok; Phu Kradung; Phu Khiewo; Wiang Kohsai; Nakohn Nayork; Kao Yai; Wan Nam Khiewo; Kao Soi Dao; Kratchin WF; Pliewn WF; Kao Chamaoh; Bang Phra; Kao Khiewo; Doi Musso; Mae Sam; Erawan WF; Sai York Noi; Wang Khiewo; Kaeng Krachang; Ka Chong; Tarutao Is.)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs., Early Stages. (Phetchabun; Sa kaeo; Chanthaburi) (accessed: 2023.09.23)
'Miletus chinensis learchus ; Küppers & Janikorn,2020 : 125, fig.Abb.L-039. (Phang Nga)'

[ LAOS ]
Miletus chinensis ssp. ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 68, pl.98, figs.A9,♂,A10,♂(Un),A11,♀,A12,♀(Un). (Nam Moh; Luang Prabang; Nam Tan)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 214, pl.106, figs.♂,♀. (Savannakhet; Boun Neua)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 51.
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Onodera,2022 : 71, pl.203, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Luang Phabang: Kachat; Sekong: Thateng)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 130. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)
'Miletus cf. chinensis learchus ; Kosterin,2019 : 91, fig.11,♀. (Koh Kong; Kep)'
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Kosterin,2020 : 315. (Siem Reap)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Chartier & Kosterin,2022 : 120. (Koh Kong; Pursat; Siem Reap)

[ VIETNAM ]
Gerydus chinensis ; Joannis,1901 : 326-327. (Tonkin: Cao Bang)
Gerydus boisduvali milvius ; Fruhstorfer,1915-1924 : 817. (S.Annam)
Gerydus boisduvali ; Moulton,1923 : 131. (Pulo Condore)
Gerydus boisduvali ; Lemée,1950 : 18. (Hagiang)
Gerydus boisduvali irroratus ; Metaye,1957 : 88. (no loc.)
Miletus archilochus archilochus ; Inoué & Kawazoé,1965 : 346-347, pl.7, figs.55,♂,56,♂(Un) ; pl.8, figs.57,♀,58,♀(Un). (Ben Nom; Trang Bom; Dinh Quan, Dong Nai; Lai Thieu, Song Be; Ba Diem)
Miletus chinensis ; Vu,2003 : 57. (Phu Quoc)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Luong et al.,2004 : 9, 74, figs.♀,♀(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Miyazaki et al.,2010 : 28, figs.L-160,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Gung Re; Phan Thiet)
Miletus chinensis learchus ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 47. (N / C / S)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Mai (Chiang Mai district and east) : 10♂ 4♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 3♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 2♀ (incl. photo by K.Yano).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 10♂ 10♀ (1♂ genitalia dissected).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 1♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.) : 4♂ 5♀ (incl. photo by A.Giudici).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 3♂ 5♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Phong Saly : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally common in montane forests at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 50 - 1100m). Males are territorial on shrubs or undergrowth in open areas within forests from 15:00 to 17:00.
The population from Chiang Mai, N.Thailand seems to be a transition to ssp.longeana. Intermediate individuals are sporadically found in Chiang Mai city and to the east. The number of individuals transitioning to longeana gradually increases as one moves westwards, with a significant increase observed in Mae Chaem district. The typical ssp.learchus and ssp.longeana, together with their intermediates, coexist sympatrically in the same area during the same period of the year. Further research is needed.
It is impossible to distinguish this species from Miletus mallus and shania by markings on the underside.


Literature

Felder, C. & Felder, R.,1865-1875 :
Rhopalocera. In Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band:
Abtheilung. Wien : vi + 548 + [1] pp in 5 parts, 140 pls.

Druce, H.,1874 : A List of the Lepidopterous Insects collected by Mr. L. Layard at Chentaboon and Nahconchaisee, Siam,
with Descriptions of new Species.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874(1):102-109, pl.16, 6 figs.

Corbet, A.S.,1938 : Observations on certain Species of Rhopalocera from the Malay Peninsula.
J. fed. Malay St. Mus. 18(2):242-262.

Eliot, J.N.,1961 : An analysis of the genus Miletus Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)
Bull. Raffles Mus. 26:154-177.


Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Miletus chinensis learchus ♀
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂ Miletus chinensis learchus ♀
♂, Yala, Thailand. ♀, Yala, Thailand.
Miletus chinensis learchus ♂
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan), Thailand. (photo by A.Giudici)

1999.07.24 - 2024.04.30.