Eurema hecabe hecabe  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Un. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♀ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀ (ws), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Un. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♀ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Un. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♀ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (ws), Nan, Thailand.
Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Un. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Un.
♂ (ds), Ranong, Thailand. ♂ (ws), Ranong, Thailand.
Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Un. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Up. Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Un.
♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Yala, Thailand.

ON : Papilio hecabe Linnaeus, 1758
OD : Syst. nat. (ed.10) 1:470.
TL : 'Asia' [Canton, China].
Distribution : Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand,
Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Hainan, China, S.Japan, Taiwan,
Langkawi, W.Malaysia, Tioman, Aur, Singapore, Borneo,
Sumatra, Java, Palawan, etc.
Eurema hecabe hecabe Map

Synonyms

Papilio luzonicus Linnaeus, 1764 : Mus. Lud. Ulr. :249. TL. China [Canton, China]
Papilio rahel Fabricius, 1787 : Mantissa Ins. 2:22. TL. 'India'
Terias sinesis Lucas, 1852 : Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4:429-430. TL. 'China'
Terias hecabeoides Ménétriés, 1855 : Enum. corp. anim. (1):85, pl.2, fig.2. TL. 'Haiti' (♂, NHML)
Terias aesiope Ménétriés, 1855 : Enum. corp. anim. (1):85, pl.2, fig.3. TL. 'Haiti' (♀, NHML)
Terias anemone Felder & Felder, 1862 : Wien. ent. Monats. 6(1):23. TL. 'Ningpo'
Terias fimbriata Wallace, 1867 : Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3)4(3):323-324. TL. Mussooree, N.India. (♂, NHML)
Terias suava Boisduval, 1836 : Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gen. Lepid. 1:670-671. TL. 'Japan ; Borneo' (♂, NHML)
Terias subdecorata Moore, 1878 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):699. TL. Hainan.
Terias attenuata Moore, 1878 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):700. TL. Hainan. (♂, NHML)
Terias arcuata Moore, 1878 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):700. TL. Hainan. (♂♀, NHML)
Terias unduligera Butler, 1880 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880:668-669. TL. Formosa. (♂, NHML)
Terias simulata Moore, [1881] : Lepid. Ceylon 1(3):110, pl.45, figs.2,♂,2a♀,2b(Un). TL. Ceylon. (♂♀, NHML)
Terias excavata Moore, 1882 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):252. TL. Kangra, Dharmsala. (♂♀, NHML)
Terias purrea Moore, 1882 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):252. TL. Kangra.
Terias irregularis Moore, 1882 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):253, pl.12, fig.3,♂. TL. Kangra. (♂♀, NHML)
Terias apicalis Moore, 1882 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):253, pl.12, fig.2,♂. TL. Kangra.
Terias contubernalis Moore, 1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):46. TL. Mergui. (♂♀, NHML ; NZC)
Terias patruelis Moore, 1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):46, pl.4, fig.5,♂. TL. Mergui. (♂♀, NHML ; NZC)
Terias fraterna Moore, 1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):46-47, pl.4, fig.6,♂. TL. Mergui. (♂♀, NHML ; NZC)
Terias merguiana Moore, 1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):47, pl.4, fig.7,♂. TL. Mergui. (♂♀, NHML ; NZC)
Terias swinhoei Butler, 1886 : Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5)17(99):216-217. TL. Bombay ; Poona. (♂, NHML)
Terias simplex Butler, 1886 : Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5)17(99):217, pl.5, fig.2,♀. TL. Kangra, N.W.Himalayas. (♀, NHML)
Terias blanda acandra Fruhstorfer, 1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 9:169. TL. Hong Kong. (♀, NHML)
Eurema hecabe cephrens Corbet, 1941 :499. TL. Sipora, Mentawis. (♂♀, NHML)
Eurema hecabe telloana Corbet, 1941 :499. TL. Pulau Tello, Mentawis. (♂♀, NHML)
Eurema hecabe albina Huang, 1994 : in Chou et al., Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium 2:754, 1:224, figs.♂(HT),♂(HT,Un). TL.Fujian.


Type Materials Imformation

contubernalis ; Syntypes 1♂, 27.Dec.1881., 1♀, 28.Dec.1881., Mergui. (NZC) ; Sheela et al.,2019 : 282, figs.♂,♂(Un), 283, figs.♀,♀(Un).
patruelis ; Syntypes 1♂, 9.Sep.1882., 1♀, 4.Sep.1882., Mergui. (NZC) ; Sheela et al.,2019 : 286, figs.♀,♀(Un), 287, figs.♂,♂(Un).
fraterna ; Syntypes 1♂, Dec.1884., 1♀, Dec.1884., Thaing. (NZC) ; Sheela et al.,2019 : 285, figs.♂,♂(Un), 286, figs.♀,♀(Un).
merguiana ; Syntypes 1♂, 01.Feb.1882., 1♀ [♂], 15.Mar.1882., Mergui. (NZC) ; Sheela et al.,2019 : 284, figs.♂,♂(Un), 285, figs.♀[♂],♀[♂](Un).


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Godfrey,1916 : 116.
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Pendlebury,1923 : 27. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Tai Sai River ; Khao Luang)
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (N)
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Godfrey,1930 : 230. (all over)
Terias hecabe ; Godfrey,1931 : 192. (Ko Tao)
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Godfrey,1932a : 265. (P)
Eurema hecabe contubernalis ; Pinratana,1983 : 27, pl.22, fig.48,♂,♀,♀,♂(Un). (Bangkok; Chiang Mai; Kamphang Phet; Kanchanaburi; Krabi; Khon Kaen; Lampang; Loei; Mae Hong Son; Nan; Nakhon Nayok; Sara Buri; Songkhla; Surat Thani; Trang; Uthai Thani)
Eurema andersonii andersonii ; Pinratana,1983 : pl.23, fig.52,♂(Un). (in part)
Eurema ada iona ; Pinratana,1983 : pl.23, fig.♂(Un). (in part)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 252, fig.55,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Pha Thaep; Phu Sa Duak Bua; Phu Mu; Ban Naudom; Phu Shang; Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Non Hai)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 19. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Huay Sing; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Ban Na Lak; Ban Gok Tum; Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Ba Hai; Ban Na Pho Krang; Phu Chong Na Yoi; Kaeng Tana; Nam Tok Soi Sawan; Kaeng E-Keow; Phu Hin Dang)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 47. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Hin Khan; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Ratchathani: Kaen Tana; Phu Chong Na Yoi; Phu Pung)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 65, fig.55,♂. (Umphang: Tha Sai; Umphang)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 46, fig.43,♂[♀], [fig.44♂, as Eurema blanda]. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 172, pl.58, figs.Pi52,♂,♀,♀(Un),♂,♂,♂(Un),♂[♀],♂[♀],♂[♀](Un),♀,♀,♀(Un) ; pl.59, fig.56d[♂(top,left),♂(bottom.left),♀[♂](bottom,center),♀[♂](Un), as Eurema simulatrix sarinoides ]. (Lamphun; Bangkok; Kanchanaburi)
Eurema simulatrix littorea ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 174, pl.60, figs.Pi53e♂,♂(Un). (Kaeng Krachan; Yala; Ranong)
Eurema lacteola lacteola ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 178, pl.62, figs.Pi57,♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Nam Phaeng Saen; Huey Kha Khaeng, Krabi)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Jeratthitikul et al.,2009 : 12, figs.4F♂,G♂,H♀,I♀. (Chiang Rai: Mae Chan; Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai; Doi Inthanon; Doi Suthep; Maeheak; San Kamphaeng; Maejo; San Sai; Hauy Hong Krai; Maehophra; Chiang Dao; Mae Jam; Doi Ang Khang; Lanpang: Maesaikhom; Chae Son; Nan: Sri Nan; Phrae; Tak; Pichit; Singburi; Ayutthya; Bangkok: Nong Khaem; Pra Khanong; Bang Sue; Bang Khen; Thon Buri; Min Buri; Samut Prakan; Tathum Thani; Nakhon Pathom: Sam Parn; Kampaeng Saen; Ratchaburi: Tham Kang Kaw; Moir Tawan; Uthaithani: Huai Kha Khaeng; Kanchanaburi: Si Sawat; Muang Sung Ga Si; Thong Pha Phum; Arawan; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai; Klong Sasan; Phisanulok: Thung Salang Laung; Phetchabun: Nam Nao; Phu Khiao; Saraburi: Pue Kae; Muak lek; Khaeng Khoi; Chanthaburi: Khoa Soi Dao; Trat: Ko Kood; Nakhon Ratchasima: Pak Chong; Hew Suvat; Surin: Prasat; Khon Kaen; Si Sa Ket; Roi Et: Mancha Khiri; Maha Sarakham; Chonburi: Ko Sichang; Ko Samaesarn; Prachuap Khiri Khan: Son; Chumphon; Phuket; Surat Thani: Ratchchaprapa Dam; Ban Na San; Nakhon Si Thammarat: Khao Luang; Songkla: Hadyai; Ton Ngachang; Satun: Ta Lu Tao; Narathiwat: Hala-bala)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Les Day,2011-2022 : Samui Butterflies, fig. (Koh Samui; Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2022.11.30)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 143, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Pha Hom Pok; Daoi Ankaan; Chiang Dao; Doi Suthep; Doi Inthanon; Bung Kashan; Doi Pa Chan; Phu Khiewo; Wan Nam Khiewo; Bang Phra; Kao Khiewo; Kratchin WF; Pliewn WF; Kao Soi Dao; Doi Musso; Erawan WF; Kanchanaburi; Kaeng Kratchan; Chum Phoong; Muang Shone; Khlong Naka; Key Rap Nam; Sonkhula; Ka Chong; Satun; Haadjai; Sai Kao WF; Than To WF.)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 172, pl.58, figs.Pi52,♂,♂,♂(Un),♀(dsf),♀(dsf),♀(Un),♀,♀,♀(Un). (Lamphun; Bangkok; Kanchanaburi)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 6. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs., Early Stages. (Kanchanaburi; Bangkok; Chanthaburi) (accessed: 2022.11.30)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 206-207, figs.Abb.Pi-109-113,227-254. (Phang Nga)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 87. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 51, pl.28, figs.7,♂,8,♂(Un) ; pl.29, figs.1,♀,2,♀(Un),3,♀,4,♀(Un). (Luang Prabang; Tha Ngone; Simouang; Pakse; Nam Ngum Dam)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 203, pl.41, figs.♂,♀,♀. (Nong Het; Xiang Khouang)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 40. (Thabok; Thakhek)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 43.
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Onodera,2022 : pl.75, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un), text:20. (Oudomxai; Khammouan; Xiengkhouang)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Eurema hecabe contubernalis ; Shirôzu & Yata,1973 : 124-126. (Kampot; Bokor)
Eurema hecabe ; Onodera,2007 : 21,22,26,27,29, fig.17,♂. (Rattanakiri: Ou Chum; Ta Veaeng; Siem Reap: Phnum Kuhlen; Angkor)
Eurema hecabe ; Onodera,2008 : 57,60,61. (Mondolkiri: Bousra; Romonea)
Eurema hecabe ; Onodera,2009 : 35,37,38. (Mondolkiri: Sen Monorom; Kratie: Snoul; Siem Reap: Phnum Kulen)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 128. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Moulton,1923 : 133. (Pulo Condore)
Terias hecabe ; Lemee,1950 : 6. (Hagiang)
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (N/ C / S)
Terias hecabe hecabe f.sodalis ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (N / C / S)
Eurema hecabe contubernalis ; Shirôzu & Yata,1973 : 124-126, pl.5,figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un),3,♀,4,♀(Un). (S: Binh Tri Dong; Tan Hon Dong; Saigon; Bien Hoa; Ba Diem; Thu Duc; Bao Lie; Cap St. Jacques; Ben Nom; Dinh Quan; Col de Blao; Dalat)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 19, figs.6:4,♂,5,♂(Un),10:26(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Eurema hecabe ; Vu,2003 : 56. (Phu Quoc)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Luong et al.,2004 : 3, 35, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Eurema hecabe ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 39. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 14, figs.Pi-30,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dong Nai: Thac Mai; Bin Thuan: Dong Tien; Ho Chi Minh)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Nihira,2009 : 98. (Phu Quoc)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 18. (N / C / S)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 77. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Coto; Nui Ket)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 7♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 20♂ 4♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae ; 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 12♂ 3♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 3♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 1♀ (photo by E.Ikari).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 12♂ 3♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Surat Thani (Koh Tao ; Koh Phangan) : 3♂ (incl.photo by P.Kosierb).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Krabi : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trang : 5♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Satun : 7♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Xieng Khouang : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Champasak : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 4♂ 3♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bin Thuan : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is very common and found almost everywhere at every elevations (Alt. 10 - 2200m). Both sexes visit flowers and males frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water. This species is highly variable, with seasonal and individual variation.
Zhang et al.,2021 found that the American genus Pyristia is internal to Eurema (s.l.) and thus divided Eurema into three genera - Eurema, Pyristia and Terias - treating hecabe from Thailand and hapale from Ethiopia within Terias. It is suggested that all Asian Eurema species should be placed in Terias, but I will hold off until a more comprehensive analysis of this genus in Asia is conducted. Eurema is tentatively used here as before. Further taxonomic study is needed.


Literature

Linnaeus, C.,1758 : Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis.
Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. (Edition 10). 1(Animalia):[iv]+824pp.

Linnaeus, C.,1764 : Museum S'ae R'ae M'tis Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae Svecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque. 1-720.

Fabricius, J.C.,1787 : Mantissa Insectorum sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus genericis,
differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus.
Copenhagen, Christ. Gottl. Proft 8vo 1:xx+348pp ; 2:[2]+382pp.

Lucas, P.H,1852 :
Description de nouvelles especes de Lepidopteres appartenant aux collections entomologiques du Musee de Paris.
(Quantrieme decade, Cinquieme decade, Sixieme Decade).
Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(3):128-141; (4):189-198; (6):290-300; (7):324-343; (9):422-432.

Ménétriés, E.,1855-1857 : Enumeratio corporum animallum musei imperialis Academiae Scientiarum Petropolitanae.
Part I + II. Lepidoptera Diurna. Petropoli (1):16+101pp, 1cpl; (2):96pp, 8 pls.

Felder, C. & Felder, R.,1862 : Observationes de Lepidopteris nonullis Chinae Centralis et Japoniae.
Wien. ent. Monats. 6(1):22-32 ; (2):33-40.

Wallace, A.R.,1867 : On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian Regions.
Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3)4(3):301-416, pls.6-9.

Boisduval, J.B.A.,1836 : Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Species General des Lepidopteres.
Tome Premier Hist. nat. Ins.1:1-690, pls.1-24.

Moore, F.,1878 : List of Lepidopterous Insects collected by the late R.Swinhoe in the Island of Hainan.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):695-708.

Butler, A.G.,1880 : On a second Collection of Lepidoptera made in Formosa by H.E.Hobson, Esq.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880:666-691

Moore, F.,[1881] : The Lepidoptera of Ceylon Lepid. Ceylon 1(3):81-136, pls.37-54. (Jun.1881)

Moore, F.,1882 : List of the Lepidoptera coleected by the Rev.J.H.Hocking chiefly in the Kangra District., N.W.Himalaya;
with Descriptions of new Genera and Species.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):234-263, pls.11,12.

Moore, F.,1886 :
List of the Lepidoptera of Mergui and Its Archipelago, collected for the Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, by Dr. John Anderson.
J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):29-60, pls.3,4.

Butler, A.G.,1886 : Notes on the Genus Terias, with Descriptions of new Species in the Collection of the British Museum
Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5)17(99):212-225, pl.5.

Strand, E.,1922 : H.Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute.
Ent. Zeit. 36(5):19.

Corbet, A.S.,1941 : Spolia Mentawiensis: Rhopalocera, Pieridae.
Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (11)8(48):497-503.

Shirôzu, T. & Yata, O.,1973 : The Genus Eurema of South Viet-Nam and Cambodia
Sieboldia 4(3):121-135.

Huang, B.,1994 : in Chou, I. (ed.),1994, Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium.
2 vols., 854 pp. Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

Wu C.,2010 : Fauna Sinica, Insecta vol.52, Lepidoptera Pieridae.
Science Press, Beijing, China. 416 pp., 16 col pls. (in Chinese)

Yata, O.,1995 : A Revision of the Old World Species of the Genus Eurema Hübner (Lepidoptera, Pieridae).
Part 5. Description of the hecabe group (part)
Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist. 14:1-54, pls.1-35.

Hsu, Y.F., Huang, C.L. & Liang. J.Y.,2018 : Butterfly fauna of Taiwan Vol.2, Pieridae
Council of Agriculture executive Yuan Forestry Bureau, Taiwan. 224 pp., 39 pls.

Zhang, J., Cong, Q., Shen, J., Opler, P.A. & Grishin, N.V.,2021 : Genomics-guided refinement of butterfly taxonomy
The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey 9(3):1-55.


Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂ Eurema hecabe hecabe ♀
♂(center) with 3 Eurema spp. Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Eurema hecabe hecabe ♂
♂(right), Yala, Thailand.

1996.10.31 - 2023.01.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.