Sumalia daraxa daraxa  (Doubleday, [1848])

Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Up. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Un. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♀ Up. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Up. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Un. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Up. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Nan, Thailand.
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Up. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Un. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Up. Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♂, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama)

ON : Limenitis daraxa Doubleday, [1848]
OD : Gen. diurn. Lep. (2):276, pl.34, fig.4.
TL : Sylhet, Assam. (NHML)
Distribution : India to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos,
Cambodia, Vietnam.
Sumalia daraxa daraxa Map

Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Limenitis daraxa ; Godfrey,1927 : 124. (N)
Limenitis daraxa daraxa ; Godfrey,1930 : 287. (Chiang Mai)
Limenitis daraxa daraxa ; Pinratana,1979 : 61, figs.N109,♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; Nakhon Ratchasima)
Limenitis daraxa daraxa ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 63, pl.41, fig.113,♂. (Chiang Mai)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 412, pl.180, figs.N117,♂,♂(Un),♀[♂]. (Doi Pha Hom Pok)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 422, pl.184, figs.N283,♂,♂(Un),♀[♂]. (Doi Pha Hom Pok; Doi Phu Kha)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Chiang Mai; Kamphaeng Phet) (accessed: 2020.09.24)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 92, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (Doi Pha Hom Pok; Doi Phui; Doi Suthep; Doi Inthanon)

[ LAOS ]
Limenitis daraxa f.daraxa ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 41. (Xieng-Khouang: Pou-Mi)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Masui & Uehara,1997 : 6, pl.2, figs.9,♂,♂(Un). (Phong Sali)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 207, pl.61, figs.♂,♀. (Oudomxay; Thakhek)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Onodera,2009b : 37, figs.28,♂,♂(Un). (Houaphan: Phu Phan)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 46.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Sumalia daraxa ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 129. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Limenitis daraxa daraxa ; Fruhstorfer,1912 : 638. (Tonkin / S.Annam: Plateau of Lang Bian)
Limenitis daraxa f.daraxa ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 41. (Tonkin / Annam)
Limenitis daraxa daraxa ; Metaye,1957 : 97. (N / C)
Sumalia daraxa ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 41. (Thua Thien Hue: Bach Ma)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006b : 26, figs.N-74&,#9794;,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dai Duc Me)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 41. (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Sumalia daraxa ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 36. (N / C)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(2):38-39, pl.39, figs.1a♂,1b♂(Un),1c♀. (N: Hoang Lien; Na Hang; Dong Phuc; Lung Li; Tam Dao / C: Pu Mat; Vu Quang; Bach Ma; Ngoc Linh; Kon Plong; Kon Ka Kinh; Bi Doup-Nui Ba ; Hon Ba; Chu Yang Sin; Loc Bac; Bao Lam)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Chiang Mai : 26♂ 2♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 8♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 4♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nakhon Nayok : 2♂ (photo by T.Aoyama).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Sekong : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 6♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is common in montane forest at moderate to high elevations (Alt.900m - 2200m). Males frequently come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
The population from Ranong, P.Thailand seems to be slightly different. I provisionally treat it as this taxon, but further taxonomic study is needed.
Wu et al.,2019 treated this species in genus Athyma. However, it is unnatural to move only daraxa to Athyma while the related species agneya remains in Sumalia (because it has not been DNA analyzed). Therefore, I treat both daraxa and agneya as genus Sumalia. Further taxonomic study, including the early stages, is needed.


Literature

Doubleday, E. & Hewitson, W.C.,1846-1852 : The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera,
comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habits and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus ;
illustrated with 86 plates by W.C.Hewitson.
Longon, Longman, Brown, Green and Longman's. xii + ii + 534 pp, 86 pls, In 54 parts. In 2 vols.

Wu, L.W., Chiba, H., Lees, D.C., Ohsima, Y. & Jeng, M.L.,2019 : Unravelling relationships among the shared stripes of sailors:
Mitogenomic phylogeny of Limenitidini butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae,Limenitidinae), focusing on the genera Athyma and Limenitis
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 130(2019):60-66.


Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand. (photo by T.Aoyama)
Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂ Sumalia daraxa daraxa ♂
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

2007.03.10 - 2022.10.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.