Charaxes bernardus hierax  Felder & Felder, [1867]

Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Un.
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Nan, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Un.
♂, Ninh Binh, Vietnam. ♀, Vinh Phuc, Vietnam.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Un.
♂, Phrae, Thailand. ♂, Phrae, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Un.
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chanthaburi, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀ Un.
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♀, Phrae, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un.
♂, Vientiane, Laos. ♂, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un.
♂, Tak, Thailand. ♂, Tak, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Up. Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Un.
♂, Nan, Thailand. ♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ genitalia Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ genitalia Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ genitalia Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ genitalia
♂ genitalia, Chaiyaphum, Thailand.

ON : Charaxes hierax Felder & Felder, [1867]
OD : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (3):442-443.
TL : Assam.
Distribution : Assam to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos,
Vietnam, S.Yunnan.
● ssp.hierax
ssp.crepax
Charaxes bernardus hierax map

Synonyms

Charaxes hipponax Felder & Felder, [1867] : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (3):443. TL. Assam.
Charaxes pleistoanax Felder & Felder, [1867] : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (3):443-444. TL. Assam.
Charaxes corax Felder & Felder, [1867] : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (3):444. TL. India septentrionalis.
Charaxes harpax Felder & Felder, [1867] : Reise Fregatte Novara, Lep. Rhop. (3):444-445. TL. no loc. [N.India]
Charaxes khasianus Butler, 1872 : Lep. exot. : 98, pl.37, fig.6,(♂,♀) TL. Khasia Hills ; N.E.Bengal.
Charaxes agna Moore, [1879] : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(4):832. TL. Moolai, Tenasserim.
Charaxes watti Butler, 1880 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880(2):148. TL. Upper Assam.
Charaxes hierax var.naganum Tytler, 1911 : J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21(1):55. TL. Naga Hills.
Charaxes bernardus mahawedi Fruhstorfer, 1914 : in Seitz, Grossschmett Erde 9:731. TL. Than Moi ; Chiem Hoa, Tonkin ; Luang Prabang, Laos.
Charaxes polyxena hierax f.rossa Fruhstorfer, 1914 : in Seitz, Grossschmett Erde 9:732. TL. Assam (Khasia - Naga Hills).


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Charaxes polyxena agna ; Fruhstorfer,1914 : 732. (Siam)
Charaxes polyxena corax ; Godfrey,1916 : 133.
Charaxes polyxena hierax f.hierax ; Godfrey,1930 : 302-303. (Prae: Me Song forest; Chiang Rai; Me Wong)
Charaxes polyxena hierax f.agna ; Godfrey,1930 : 303. (Pak Jong; Muak Lek; Chonburi: Sriracha)
Charaxes polyxena agna ; Talbot,1936 ; 57.
Charaxes polyxena agna ; Davidson & Macbeth,1938 : 77.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Pinratana,1979 : 105, figs.N177a♂,♂(Un),♂,♂,♀. (Chiang Mai; Chanthaburi; Kao Yai; Phitsanulok; Ratchaburi)
Charaxes marmax marmax ; Pinratana,1979 : fig.N178,♀. (in part)
Charaxes bernardus agna ; Pinratana,1979 : 105, not fig. (list only)
Charaxes aristogiton aristogiton ; Pinratana,1979 : 107, figs.N179,♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; Chaiyaphum)
Charaxes kahruba ; Pinratana,1979 : fig.N180,♀. (in part)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 96, pl.70, figs.181a♂(f.hierax),♂(f.hipponax),♂(f.pleistonax), pl.71,fig.181a♀. (Chiang Mai; Chaiyaphum; Chonburi; Phisanulok; Chanthaburi; Nakhon Nayok; Kanchanaburi; Ratchaburi)
Charaxes marmax marmax ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : pl.72, fig.182,♂. (in part)
Charaxes aristogiton aristogiton ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : pl.72, figs.183,♂,♀. (in part)
Charaxes kahruba ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : pl.73, fig.184,♀. (in part)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 31, fig.84♂. (Mukdahan: Ban Na Lak)
Charaxes kahruba ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 31, fig.85♀. (Mukdahan: Ban Na Lak)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 52. 59, fig.22,♂. (Ubon Ratchathani: Phu Chong Na Yoi; Mukdahan: Nam Tok Tad Ton)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 71, fig.176,♂. (Umphang: Tha-Sai; Umphang)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 50, fig.130,♂. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 476,478, pl.212, figs.N194a,f.hierax♂,♂(Un),♂(f.paleistonax),♂(f.hipponax), ♀,♀(Un). (Wiang Pa Pao; Phu Khieo)
Charaxes bernardus crepax ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.213, figs.N194b♀(middle),♀(middle,Un). (in part)
Charaxes marmax marmax ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.214, figs.N195,♂,♂(Un). (in part)
Charaxes aristogiton peridoneus ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.214, figs.N196,♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un). (in part)
Charaxes kahrubax ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : pl.215, figs.N197,♀(middle),♀(middle,Un),♀(bottom,left). (in part)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 366, pl.156, figs.N197a♂(f.hierax),♂(Un),♂(f.pleistoanax),♂(f.hipponax) ; pl.157,figs.197a♀,♀(Un). (Wiang Pa Pao; Phu Khieo)
Charaxes bernardus crepax ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.157, figs.N197b♀(middle),♀(middle,Un). (in part)
Charaxes aristogiton aristogiton ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.158, figs.N199,♂(top,left),♂(top,center),♂(top,Un). (in part)
Charaxes kahruba ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : pl.159, figs.N200,♀(middle,left),♀(middle,Un). (in part)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Okamoto et al.,2013 : 9. (Kanchanaburi: Mae Klong Station)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs, Early Stages. (Sa Kaeo; Saraburi; Chanthaburi; Nakhon Nayok; Phetchabun) (accessed: 2021.07.20)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 130, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Dao; Doi Suthep; Doi Inthanon; Khun Lao; Doi Pa Chang; Thung Saleng Luang; Phu Khiewo; Sarika; Kao Yai; Nakohn Nayok; Wan Nam Khiewo; Bung Khan; Kao Soi Dao; Kao Khiewo; Sai York Noi; Kaeng Krachan)

[ LAOS ]
Charaxes polyxena mahawedi ; Fruhstorfer,1914 : 731. (Luang Prabang)
Charaxes polyxena f.mahawedi ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 47. (Luang-Prabang)
Charaxes polyxena f.corax ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 47. (Laos)
Charaxes polyxena f.hipponax ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 47. (Luang-Prabang)
Charaxes polyxena f.khasianus ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 47. (Thado)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 63, pl.79, figs.1,♂,2,♂(Un). (Vang Vieng; Phatong)
Charaxes aristogiton aristogiton ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 63, pl.79, figs.5,♂,6,♂(Un). (Vang Vieng)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 208, pl.82, figs.♂,♀,♂,♂,♂,♂(Un),♂(Un),♂(Un),♀. (Lak Sao; Xaignabouri; Thabok; Nam Tha)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 43. (Thabok; Namdhua)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Onodera,2009b : 35,39,41,42,43. (Vientiane: Namsong Riverside; Bolikhamxai: Thabok; Phon Si; Khammouan: Nacay)
Charaxes aristogiton aristogiton ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 209, pl.83, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀. (Thabok; Vang)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 47.
Charaxes aristogiton aristogiton ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 47.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : fig.♀. (Botum Sakor NP.)
Charaxes kahruba ; Woodfield & Murton,2006 : fig.♀. (Botum Sakor NP.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Charaxes hipponax ; Joannis,1901 : 319. (Tonkin: Cao Bang)
Charaxes polyxena mahawedi ; Fruhstorfer,1914 : 731. (Tonkin: Than Moi; Chiem Hoa)
Charaxes mahawedi ; Dubois & Vitalis,1919 : 233. (Tonkin)
Charaxes polyxena f.mahawedi ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 47. (Tonkin: Chiem-Hoa)
Charaxes polyxena f.khasianus ; Dubois & Vitalis,1924 : 47. (Lao-Kay)
Charaxes polyxena mahawedi ; Metaye,1957 : 99. (N)
Charaxes polyxena mahawedi f.khasianus ; Metaye,1957 : 99. (N)
Charaxes marmax ; Ikeda et al.,2000 : figs.8:9♂,10♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong) (in part)
Charaxes bernardus mahawedi ; Ikeda et al.,2000 : 37, figs.8:12,♂,13,♂,14,♂,15♂(Un), fig.9:48(♂,genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Luong et al.,2004 : 8, 72, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Charaxes aristogiton peridoneus ; Luong et al.,2004 : 8, 72, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006b : 35, figs.N-116,♂,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dong Nai: Thac Mai; Bin Thuan: Dong Tien)
Charaxes bernardus ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 42. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Charaxes aristogiton peridoneus ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2007c : 39, fig.N-123,♀. (Lam Dong: Madagui)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 42. (N / C / S)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Yokochi et al.,2015 : 40, figs.49,♀,49v♀(Un). (Khanh Hoa: Hon Ba)
Charaxes bernardus mahawedi ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(1):97-99, pl.16, figs.a♂,b♂(Un),c♂,d♂(Un),e♂,f♂(Un),g♀. (N: Ba Be; Huu Lien; Tam Dao; Cuc Phuong; Van Ban / C: Xuan Lien; Ben En; Pu Hoat)
Charaxes bernardus hierax ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(1):97-99, pl.16, figs.h♂,i♂(Un),k♂,l♂ ; pl.17, figs.1a♂,1b♂(Un),1c♀. (C: Bu Huong; Pu Mat; Huong Son; Vu Quang; Phong Nha Ke Bang; Phong Dien; Dakrong; Bach Ma; Ninh Son; Nui Chua; Chu Yang Sin; Da Teh; Bao Lam; Cat Tien / S: Cat Tien; Lo Go Sa Mat)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 10♂ 2♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 22♂ 6♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 2♂ 1♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 7♂ 8♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 12♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nongkai : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 13♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Kanchanaburi : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 5♂ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chaiyaphum : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sriracha : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 3♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trat : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchaburi : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Luang Phabang : 1♀ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bolikhamxai : 1♀ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Khammouan : 1♀ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Vientiane : 4♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Vinh Phuc : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ninh Binh : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is very common in montane forest at low to high elevations (alt.20m - 1800m).
Both male and female are polymorphic and very variable. The populations in the continental Indo-china region are highly variable and individual and seasonal variation seems to be more pronounced than geographic variation. I treat all populations to this taxon provisionally, further taxonomic study is needed. Some examples from Tak province, W.Thailand are very similar to ssp.crepax, and the area seems to be a transition zone.


Literature

Felder, C. & Felder, R.,1865-1875 :
Rhopalocera. In Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band:
Abtheilung. Wien : vi + 548 + [1] pp in 5 parts, 140 pls.

Butler, A.G.,1869-1874 : Lepidoptera exotica, or Descriptions an Illustrations of Exotic Lepidoptera.
London, E.W.Janson 4to:[vi]+190+[vi] pp, pls,1-64 (20 parts)

Moore, F.,[1879] :
A list of the lepidopterous insects collected by Mr.Ossian Limborg in upper Tenasserim, with descriptions of new species.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(4):821-859, 3 pls.

Butler, A.G.,1880 : On new and little-known butterflies from India.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880(2):147-152, pl,15.

Tytler, H.,1911 : Notes on butterflies from the Naga Hills.
J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21(1):48-65, pl.A.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1914 : 6. Familie: Nymphalidae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9
729-736. (19.May.1914)


Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Charaxes bernardus hierax ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂ Charaxes bernardus hierax ♂
♂, Phetchabun, Thailand. ♂, Phetchabun, Thailand.

2006.12.09 - 2021.07.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.