Eurema hecabe hecabe   (Linnaeus,1758)

♂, 1985.08.15. Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, 1984.03.11. Ban Na Plachat, Mae Hong Son, Thailand.
♂, 1993.11.27. Muang Chone, Ranong, Thailand. ♂, 1992.01.19. Doi Phu Kha, Nan, Thailand.
♂, 1991.09.24. Doi Phu Kha, Nan, Thailand. ♀, 1991.07.--. Doi Phu Kha, Nan, Thailand.

ON : Papilio hecabe  Linnaeus,1758
OD : Syst. nat. (ed.10) 1:470.
TL : "Asia" [S.China, Hong Kong].



Distribution :
Nepal to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Hainan, China,
Japan, Formosa, Langkawi, W.Malaysia, Tioman, Aur, Singapore,
Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Palawan, Luzon, etc.

Synonyms

Papilio rahel  Fabricius,1787 : Mantissa Ins. 2:22.  TL. India.
Terias sinesis  Lucas,1852 : Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4:429-430.  TL. China.
Terias hecabeoides  Menetries,1855 : Enum. corp. anim. (1):85, pl.2, fig.2.  TL. "Haiti"
Terias anemone  Felder & Felder,1862 : Wien. ent. Monats. 6(1):23.  TL. Ningpo.
Terias fimbriata  Wallace,1867 : Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3)4(3):323-324.  TL.  Mussooree, N.India.
Terias mandarina  de L'Orza,1869 : Lep. Japonais :18.  TL. Japan.
Terias subdecorata  Moore,1878 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):699.  TL. Hainan.
Terias attenuata  Moore,1878 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):700.  TL. Hainan.
Terias arcuata  Moore,1878 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):700.  TL. Hainan.
Terias mariesii  Butler,1880 : Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 28(4):198, pl.6, fig.1.  TL. Japan.
Terias hybrida  Butler,1880 : Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 28(4):199.  TL. Japan.
Terias connexiva  Butler,1880 : Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 28(4):199, pl.6, fig.12.  TL. Japan.
Terias hobsoni  Butler,1880 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880:668.  TL. Formosa.
Terias unduligera  Butler,1880 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880:668-669.  TL. Formosa.
Terias excavata  Moore,1882 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):252.  TL. Kangra, Dharmsala.
Terias purrea  Moore,1882 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):252.  TL. Kangra.
Terias irregularis  Moore,1882 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):253, pl.12, fig.3.  TL. Kangra.
Terias apicalis  Moore,1882 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):253, pl.12, fig.2.  TL. Kangra.
Terias contubernalis  Moore,1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):46.  TL. Mergui.
Terias patruelis  Moore,1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):46, pl.4, fig.5♂.  TL. Mergui.
Terias fraterna  Moore,1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):46-47, pl.4, fig.6♂.  TL. Mergui.
Terias merguiana  Moore,1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):47, pl.4, fig.7♂.  TL. Mergui.
Terias kana  Moore,1886 : J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):48, pl.4, fig.9♂.  TL. Mergui.
Terias hecabe borneensis  Fruhstorfer,1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde. 9:167, pl.73e.  TL. Borneo.
Terias blanda acandra  Fruhstorfer,1910 : in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde. 9:169.  TL. Hong Kong.
* Terias taiwana  Matsumura,1919 : Thous. Ins. Japan Addit. 3:512.  TL. Japan.
Terias hecabe f.paroeana  Strand,1922 : Ent. Zeit. 36(5):19.  TL. Formosa.
* Eurema ab.jacouleti  Nakahara,1941 : Zephyrus 9:1-3.


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Godfrey,1916 : 116.
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Pendlebury,1923 : 27. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Tai Sai River ; Khao Luang)
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Godfrey,1927 : 120. (North)
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Godfrey,1930 : 230. (all over)
Terias hecabe ; Godfrey,1931 : 192. (Ko Tao)
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Godfrey,1932a : 265. (Peninsular)
Eurema hecabe contubernalis ; Reeves,1966 : 12. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai)
Eurema hecabe contubernalis ; Reeves,1967a : 121. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai)
Eurema hecabe contubernalis ; Pinratana,1983 : 27, pl.22, fig.48,♂,♀,♀,♂(Un) ; pl.23, [fig.55,♂(Un). as Eurema ada iona.] (Bangkok / Chiang Mai / Kamphang Phet / Kanchanaburi / Krabi / Khon Kaen / Lampang / Loei / Mae Hong Son / Nan / Nakhon Nayok / Sara Buri / Songkhla / Surat Thani / Trang / Uthai Thani)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 252, fig.55♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Pha Thaep ; Phu Sa Duak Bua ; Phu Mu ; Ban Naudom ; Phu Shang / Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Non Hai)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 19. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram ; Phu Huay Sing ; Nam Tok Tad Ton ; Ban Na Lak ; Ban Gok Tum / Ubon Ratchathani: Ban Ba Hai ; Ban Na Pho Krang; Phu Chong Na Yoi ; Kaeng Tana ; Nam Tok Soi Sawan ; Kaeng E-Keow ; Phu Hin Dang)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 47. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram ; Phu Hin Khan ; Nam Tok Tad Ton / Ubon Ratchathani: Kaen Tana ; Phu Chong Na Yoi ; Phu Pung)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 65, fig.55♂. (Umphang: Tha Sai ; Umphang)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Katsuyama et al.,2006 : 46, fig.43♂[♀], [fig.44♂, as Eurema blanda]. (Nan: Ban Nam Poon)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 172, pl.58, fig.Pi52,♂,♀,♀(Un),♂,♂,♂(Un),♂[♀],♂[♀],♂[♀](Un),♀,♀,♀(Un) ; pl.59, fig.56d,[♂(top,left),♂(bottom.left),♀[♂](bottom,center),♀[♂](Un), as Eurema simulatrix sarinoides ]. (Lamphun / Bangkok / Kanchanaburi)
Eurema simulatrix littorea ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 174, pl.60, fig.Pi53e,♂,♂(Un). (Kaeng Krachan / Yala / Ranong)
Eurema lacteola lacteola ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 178, pl.62, fig.Pi57,♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Nam Phaeng Saen / Huey Kha Khaeng, Krabi)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Jeratthitikul et al.,2009 : 12, fig.4F♂,G♂,H♀,I♀. (Chiang Rai: Mae Chan / Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai; Doi Inthanon; Doi Suthep; Maeheak; San Kamphaeng; Maejo; San Sai; Hauy Hong Krai; Maehophra; Chiang Dao; Mae Jam; Doi Ang Khang / Lanpang: Maesaikhom; Chae Son / Nan: Sri Nan / Phrae / Tak / Pichit / Singburi / Ayutthya / Bangkok: Nong Khaem; Pra Khanong; Bang Sue; Bang Khen; Thon Buri; Min Buri / Samut Prakan / Tathum Thani / Nakhon Pathom: Sam Parn; Kampaeng Saen / Ratchaburi: Tham Kang Kaw; Moir Tawan / Uthaithani: Huai Kha Khaeng / Kanchanaburi: Si Sawat; Muang Sung Ga Si; Thong Pha Phum; Arawan / Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai; Klong Sasan / Phisanulok: Thung Salang Laung / Phetchabun: Nam Nao; Phu Khiao / Saraburi: Pue Kae; Muak lek; Khaeng Khoi / Chanthaburi: Khoa Soi Dao / Trat: Ko Kood / Nakhon Ratchasima: Pak Chong; Hew Suvat / Surin: Prasat / Khon Kaen / Si Sa Ket / Roi Et: Mancha Khiri / Maha Sarakham / Chonburi: Ko Sichang; Ko Samaesarn / Prachuap Khiri Khan: Son / Chumphon / Phuket / Surat Thani: Ratchchaprapa Dam; Ban Na San / Nakhon Si Thammarat: Khao Luang / Songkla: Hadyai; Ton Ngachang / Satun: Ta Lu Tao / Narathiwat: Hala-bala)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Les Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, fig.♂(Un). (Koh Samui)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 143, fig.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Doi Pha Hom Pok / Daoi Ankaan / Chiang Dao / Doi Suthep / Doi Inthanon / Bung Kashan / Doi Pa Chan / Phu Khiewo / Wan Nam Khiewo / Bang Phra / Kao Khiewo / Kratchin WF / Pliewn WF / Kao Soi Dao / Doi Musso / Erawan WF / Kanchanaburi / Kaeng Kratchan / Chum Phoong / Muang Shone / Khlong Naka / Key Rap Nam / Sonkhula / Ka Chong / Satun / Haadjai / Sai Kao WF / Than To WF)

[ LAOS ]
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 51, pl.28, figs.7♂,8♂(Un) ; pl.29, figs.1♀,2♀(Un),3♀,4♀(Un). (Luang Prabang / Tha Ngone / Simouang / Pakse / Nam Ngum Dam)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 203, pl.41, figs.♂,♀,♀. (Nong Het / Xiang Khouang)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 40. (Thabok / Thakhek)

[ CAMBODIA ]
Eurema hecabe ; Onodera,2007 : 21,22,26,27,29, fig.17♂. (Rattanakiri: Ou Chum; Ta Veaeng / Siem Reap: Phnum Kuhlen; Angkor)
Eurema hecabe ; Onodera,2008 : 57,60,61. (Mondolkiri: Bousra; Romonea)
Eurema hecabe ; Onodera,2009 : 62,64,65. (Mondolkiri: Sen Monorom / Kratie: Snoul / Siem Reap: Phnum Kulen)

[ VIETNAM ]
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Moulton,1923 : 133. (Pulo Condore)
Terias hecabe ; Lemee,1950 : 6. (Hagiang)
Terias hecabe hecabe ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (North / Central / South)
Terias hecabe hecabe f.sodalis ; Metaye,1957 : 87. (North / Central / South)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Ikeda et al.,1998 : 19, figs.6:4♂,5♂(Un),10:26(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Eurema hecabe ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 39. (Thua Thien Hue: Nam Dong; A Luoi; Huong Thuy; Phong Dien; Bach Ma)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006 : 14, figs.Pi-30♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri / Dong Nai: Thac Mai / Bin Thuan: Dong Tien / Ho Chi Minh)
Eurema hecabe hecabe ; Nihira,2009 : 98. (Phu Quoc)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
 Mae Hong Son, Ban Na Plachat.     1984.03.11       1♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Mae Hong Son, Ban Na Plachat.     1984.03.12   1♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Mae Hong Son, Mae Hong Son.       1991.11.14   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Chiang Dao.           1987.01.29   1♂       A.Wakaumi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Chiang Dao.           1983.03.07   8♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.           1983.03.05       1♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.           1983.03.08   1♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.           1983.03.09   1♂ 1♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.           1985.08.15   2♂       Y.Shiraishi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep.           1985.08.16   2♂       Y.Shiraishi (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Omkoi.                1994.03.20   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Omkoi.                1994.03.29   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Chiang Mai, Omkoi.                1994.04.28   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Nan, Doi Phu Kha.                 1992.01.19   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Nan, Doi Phu Kha.                 1992.02.03   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Nan, Doi Phu Kha.                 1991.06.--   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Nan, Doi Phu Kha.                 1991.07.--       1♀   Local Catcher (YI)
 Nan, Doi Phu Kha.                 1991.09.24   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Nan, Doi Phu Kha.                 1991.10.01   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Nan, Doi Phu Kha.                 1991.10.05   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Nan, Doi Phu Kha.                 1991.12.07   1♂       Local Catcher (YI)
 Tak, Umphang.                     2012.06.13       1♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Petchaburi, Nong Yaplong.         2011.12.02   1♂       A.Rukkasikorn (YI)
 Ranong, Khlong Naka.              1983.03.16   2♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Ranong, Khlong Naka.              1983.03.18   2♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Ranong, Muang Chone.              1995.01.15   1♂       S.Ruangrit (YI)
 Ranong, Muang Chone.              1987.04.14       2♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Ranong, Muang Chone.              1987.04.15   1♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Ranong  Muang Chone               1987.04.17   2♂ 1♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Ranong, Muang Chone.              1993.11.27   1♂       S.Ruangrit (YI)
 Ranong, Muang Chone.              1993.12.24   1♂       S.Ruangrit (YI)
 Satun, Ko Tarutao.                1987.03.14       1♀   Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Satun, Ko Tarutao.                1987.03.15   2♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)

[ LAOS ]
 Xiang Khouang, Muang Phon Savan.  1993.06.25       1♀   P.Sukkit (YI)
 Cham Pasak, Paksong.              1996.03.24   1♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)
 Cham Pasak, Paksong.              1996.03.25   1♂       Y.Inayoshi (YI)

[ VIETNAM ]
 Lam Dong, Dambri.                 2003.01.01   1♂ 2♀   K.Saito (KS)
 Lam Dong, Dambri.                 2003.09.14       3♀   K.Saito (KS)
 Lam Dong, Dambri.                 2003.09.15   1♂ 1♀   K.Saito (KS)
 Lam Dong, Dambri.                 2003.09.18       3♀   K.Saito (KS)
 Lam Dong, Dambri.                 2002.12.30   1♂       K.Saito (KS)
 Lam Dong, Madagui.                2006.10.03   1♂       K.Saito (KS)
 Bin Thuan, Dong Tien.             2006.10.07       1♀   K.Saito (KS)
 Bin Thuan, Dong Tien.             2006.10.08   1♂       K.Saito (KS)

Notes
Literature

Linnaeus, C.,1758 : Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis.
Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. (Edition 10). 1(Animalia):[iv]+824pp.

Fabricius, J.C.,1787 : Mantissa Insectorum sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus genericis,
differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus.
Copenhagen, Christ. Gottl. Proft 8vo 1:xx+348pp ; 2:[2]+382pp.

Lucas, P.H,1852 :
Description de nouvelles especes de Lepidopteres appartenant aux collections entomologiques du Musee de Paris.
(Quantrieme decade, Cinquieme decade, Sixieme Decade).
Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(3):128-141; (4):189-198; (6):290-300; (7):324-343; (9):422-432.

Menetries, E.,1855-1857 : Enumeratio corporum animallum musei imperialis Academiae Scientiarum Petropolitanae.
Part I + II. Lepidoptera Diurna. Petropoli (1):16+101pp, 1cpl; (2):96pp, 8 pls.

Felder, C. & R. Felder,1862 : Observationes de Lepidopteris nonullis Chinae Centralis et Japoniae.
Wien. ent. Monats. 6(1):22-32 ; (2):33-40.

Wallace, A.R.,1867 : On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian Regions.
Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3)4(3):301-416, pls.6-9.

de L'Orza,P.,1869 : Les Lepidopteres Japonais a la grande Exposition internationale de 1867. Catalogue raisonne des especes qui y ont figure avec la description des especes nouvelles. Paris : 49pp (8vo)

Moore, F.,1878 : List of Lepidopterous Insects collected by the late R.Swinhoe in the Island of Hainan.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):695-708.

Butler, A.G.,1880 : Observations upon certain species of the Lepidopterous genus Terias,
with descriptions of hitherto unnamed forms from Japan.
Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 28(4):197-200, pl.6.

Butler, A.G.,1880 : On a second Collection of Lepidoptera made in Formosa by H.E.Hobson, Esq.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880:666-691

Moore, F.,1882 : List of the Lepidoptera coleected by the Rev.J.H.Hocking chiefly in the Kangra District., N.W.Himalaya;
with Descriptions of new Genera and Species.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882(1):234-263, pls.11,12.

Moore, F.,1886 :
List of the Lepidoptera of Mergui and Its Archipelago, collected for the Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, by Dr. John Anderson.
J. linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21(126):29-60, pls.3,4.

Strand, E.,1922 : H.Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute.
Ent. Zeit. 36(5):19.

1996.10.31 - 2012.08.31.