Arhopala democritus lycaenaria  (Felder & Felder, 1860)

Arhopala democritus lycaenaria ♀ Up. Arhopala democritus lycaenaria ♀ Un. Arhopala democritus lycaenaria ♀ Up. Arhopala democritus lycaenaria ♀ Un.
♀, Yala (Betong dist.), Thailand. ♀, Yala (Betong dist.), Thailand.

ON : Amblypodia lycaenaria Felder & Felder, 1860
OD : Wien. ent. Monats. 4(12):396.
TL : Malay Pen. (♂, NHML)
Distribution : P.Thailand (Yala: Betong ; Narathiwat),
W.Malaysia, {Singapore}.
● ssp.democritus
transition zone of democritus and lycaenaria
Arhopala democritus lycaenaria map

Records taken from Literature

Arhopala democritus lycaenaria ; Pinratana,1981 : 84, pl.31, fig.9,♀(Un). (Yala)
'Arhopala democritus lycaenaria ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 650, pl.295, fig.L252b♀(Malaysia),♀(Un,Malaysia).'
Arhopala democritus lycaenaria ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2023- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Yala) (accessed: 2023.07.05)

Specimens Examined

Yala (Betong dist.) : 3♀ (incl. photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Narathiwat : 1♀ (photo by S.Atdhabhan).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


The butterfly is locally not rare in montane forests at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 150 - 550m).
In the southernmost part of Thailand, the population close to the nominotypical subspecies is found in Than To dist., in Yala, and the populations close to ssp.lycaenaria have been found in Betong dist., in Yala and Narathiwat. However, both populations are different from the true respective taxa. I think they are transitional forms between ssp.democritus and ssp.lycaenaria. The effects of the transition between the two subspecies may be apparent. Eliot (1978:291; 1992:281) mentioned that the possibility of separate species of these two taxa. Further taxonomic and distributional studies, including DNA analysis, are needed.


Felder, C. & Felder, R.,1860 : Lepidoptera nova in paeninsula Malayica collecta diagnosibus instructa.
Wien. ent. Monats. 4(12):394-402.

Corbet, A.S.,1941 : A key to the Indo-Malayan species of Arhopala Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)
Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)10(9):149-183, figs.1-114.

Evans, W.H.,1957 : A Revision of the Arhopala Group of Oriental Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera).
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 5(3):85-141.

Eliot, J.N.,1978 : In Corbet & Pendlebury. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula, edn. 3.
Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.

Eliot, J.N.,1992 : In Corbet & Pendlebury. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula, edn. 4.
Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.

Arhopala democritus lycaenaria ♀
♀, Yala (Betong dist.), Thailand. (photo by S.Atdhabhan)

1999.07.18 - 2023.07.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.