Neopithecops zalmora zalmora  (Butler,[1870])

Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♂ Up. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♂ Un. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♀ Up. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♀ Un.
♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀, Mae Hong Son, Thailand.
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♂ Up. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♂ Un. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♀ Up. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♀ Un.
♂, Phrae, Thailand. ♀, Mae Hong Son, Thailand.
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♂ Up. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♂ Un. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♀ Up. Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♀ Un.
♂, Narathiwat, Thailand. ♀, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.), Thailand.

ON : Pithecops zalmora Butler,[1870]
OD : Cat. diurn. Lep. Fabricius Br. Mus. :161.
TL : Moulmein. (♀, NHML)
Distribution : N.W.India to Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia,
Laos, Vietnam, S.China, Formosa, W.Malaysia, Sumatra, Batu,
Nias, Bangka, Borneo, Philippines. [Java]

Synonyms

Pithecops nihana Moore,1878 : Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):702. TL. Hainan. (NHML)
Neopithecops horsfieldi Distant,1884 : Rhop. malayana : 210, pl.22, fig.15. TL. Singapore.
Pithecops zalmora fedora Fruhstorfer,1919 : Arch. Naturgesch. (A)83(1):83. TL. Formosa. (NHML)
Pithecops zalmora dolona Fruhstorfer,1919 : Arch. Naturgesch. (A)83(1):83. TL. Hong Kong.
Pithecops zalmora colutha Fruhstorfer,1919 : Arch. Naturgesch. (A)83(1):84. TL. Luzon ; Palawan. (NHML)
Neopithecops zalmora batuana Riley,[1945] : Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 94(2):256. TL. Batu Is. ; Pulau Tello. (♂, NHML)


Type Materials Information

zalmora  ; Holotype ♀, Moulmein, Burma. (NHML)
nihana  ; Lectotype ♂, Hainan. designated by Eliot & Kawazoé,1983. (NHML)
horsfieldi  ; Holotype ♂, Singapore.
dolona  ; Lectotype ♂, Hong kong. designated by Eliot & Kawazoé,1983.
fedora  ; Lectotype ♂, Taiwan. designated by Eliot & Kawazoé,1983. (NHML)
colutha  ; Lectotype ♂, Palawan, Philippines. designated by Eliot & Kawazoé,1983. (NHML)
batuana  ; Holotype ♂, Batu Is. ; Pulau Tello. (NHML)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Neopithecops zalmora ; Godfrey,1916 : 135. (Muak Lek ; Pak Jong)
Neopithecops zalmora ; Pendlebury,1923 : 44. (Nakhon Sri Thammarat: Khao Ram ; Khao Luang)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Godfrey,1930 : 314. (Prae: Me Song forest / Chieng Rai / Muak Lek / Nakon Sri Thammarat)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Godfrey,1932a : 271. (P)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Kawazoé,1964 : 151, pl.8, fig.55,♂,Textfig.19,♂genitalia. (N: Chieng Mai / P: Khao Chong)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Pinratana,1981 : 48, 164, pl.7, figs.18,♂,19,♀(dsf),20,♀(Un). (Chiang Mai / Chaiyaphum / Nakhon Nayok / Ranong / Satun / Trang)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 257, fig.176,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Mu)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 34. (Ubon Ratchathani: Phu Chong Na Yoi ; Kaeng E-Keow)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 561, pl.254, figs.L81,♂(Malaysia),♂(Un,Malaysia),♂(dsf),♀(dsf). (Doi Inthanon / Wiang Pa Pao)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Les Day,2011 - : Butterflies of Koh Samui, fig. (Koh Samui) (accessed: 2020.11.27)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 580, pl.263, figs.L106,♂,♂(Un),♂(dsf),♀(dsf). (Doi Inthanon / Wiang Pa Pao)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Kimura et al.,2014 : 193, figs.♂,♂(Un),♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Phu Khiewo / Nakohn Nayok / Wan Nam Khewo / Kao Soi Dao / Kao Khiewo / Kaeng Krachan / Tenasserim / Muang Shone / Kao Poh Ta / Khlong Naka / Ka Chong / Satun / Thaleban / Sonkhla / Than To WF)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, figs. (Saraburi / Sa Kaeo / Chanthaburi / Trat / Yala) (accessed: 2020.11.27)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Chaianunporn & Chaianunporn,2019 : 85. (Chaiyaphum: Chulabhorn Dam)

[ LAOS ]
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 70, pl.100, figs.A11,♂[♀],A12,♀(Un). (Tha Ngone / Luang Prabang)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 215, pl.109, fig.♂(Un). (Nhahin)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Nimura & Wakahara,2005 : 46. (Namdhua / Thakhek)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Onodera,2009b : 43. (Bolikhamxai: Phon Si)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 51.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Shirozu & Saigusa,1962 : 83, pl.15, figs.117,♀,118,♀(Un). (Puok)
Neopithecops zalmora ; Onodera,2007 : 23,25, fig.79,♂. (Rattanakiri: Veun Sai; Ou Chum)
Neopithecops zalmora ; Onodera,2009 : 67. (Siem Reap: Phnum Kulen)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 130. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Pithecops zalmora gaura ; Fruhstorfer,1915-1924 : 880. (S.Annam)
Neopithecops zalmora ; Godfrey,1919 : 469. (S: Daban)
Pithecops zalmora ; Lemee,1950 : 19. (Hanoi)
Pithecops zalmora zalmora ; Metaye,1957 : 91. (no loc.)
Pithecops zalmora zalmora f.hib.gaura ; Metaye,1957 : 91. (no loc.)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Ikeda et al.,2001 : 48, figs.2:3,♂,4,♂(Un),5,♀,6:10(♂genitalia). (Cuc Phuong)
Neopithecops zalmora ; Lien,2003 : 58. (Phu Quoc)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Hao et al.,2004 : 9, 75, figs.♀,♀(Un). (Cuc Phuong)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,[2007] : 52, figs.L-24,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri ; Madagui / Dong Nai: Thac Mai)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Nihira,2009 : 101. (Phu Quoc)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 50. (N / C / S)
Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 80. (S: Nui Cam / Nui Coto)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 6♂ 3♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 4♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 3♂ 1♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Kanchanaburi : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chaiyaphum : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 1♂ 3♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Ranong : 6♂ 2♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.) : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Trang : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Yala : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Narathiwat : 1♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Champasak : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes
The butterfly is not rare in montane forest at low to moderate elevations (alt.100m - 700m).
Examples of Mae Hong Son, both males and females tend to have a wider white patch on the upper side of both wings especially in dry season.

Literature

Butler, A.G.,[1870] : Catalogueof diurnal Lepidoptera described by Fabricius in the collection of the British Museum.
British Museum, Londln : v + 303pp, 3 pls.

Moore, F.,1878 : List of Lepidopterous Insects collected by the late R.Swinhoe in the Island of Hainan.
Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878(3):695-708.

Distant, W.L.,1882-1886 : Rhopalocera Malayana : a Description of the Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula.
London, Author, Penang, Logan : xvi+482+[4]pp, 46 pls.

Fruhstorfer, H.,[1919] : Revision der Artengruppe Pithecops auf Grund der Morphologie der Klammerorgane.
Arch. Naturgesch. (A)83(1):77-84, 4 figs.

Riley, N.D.,[1945] : Spolia Mentawiensia: Rhopalocera, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae
Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 94(2):247-271.

Neopithecops zalmora zalmora ♂
♂, Phrae, Thailand.

1999.06.25 - 2020.11.30.
A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.