Euthalia aconthea garuda  (Moore,[1858])

Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Un. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Mae Hong Son, Thailand.
Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Un. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Nan, Thailand.
Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Un. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (ws), Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Un. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Un.
♂ (ws), Nan, Thailand. ♀ (ds), Chanthaburi, Thailand.
Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Un. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Up. Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀ Un.
♂ (ds), Chonburi, Thailand. ♀, Bangkok, Thailand.

ON : Adolias garuda Moore,[1858]
OD : in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. East India Co. (1):186-187,
pl.6, fig.2(larva),2a(chrysalis).
TL : N.India.
Distribution : N.India to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam,
Yunnan, Langkawi.

● ssp.garuda
ssp.gurda
Euthalia aconthea garuda map

Synonyms

Euthalia merilia Swinhoe,1893 : Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 41(3):286-287. TL. Cherra Punji, Assam.
Euthalia aconthea apama Fruhstorfer,1913 : in Seitz, Grossschmett Erde 9:667. TL. Bangkok, Siam ; Saigon, Cochin-China.


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Euthalia garuda apama ; Godfrey,1916 : 130-131. (Bangkok)
Euthalia garuda apama ; Godfrey,1930 : 292. (except P)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Pinratana,1979 : 73, figs.N125,♀,♀(Un),♂. (Chiang Mai; Chaiyaphum; Bangkok; Kanchanaburi; Nakhon Ratchasima; Nonthaburi; Saraburi) (in part)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Pinratana & Eliot,1996 : 75, pl.50, figs.137a♂,♂(Un),♀. (Chiang Mai; Chaiyaphum; Nakhon Ratchasima; Saraburi; Bangkok; Nonthaburi; Chonburi; Kanchanaburi)
Euthalia aconthea apama ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2000 : 255, fig.107,♂. (Mukdahan: Phu Mu; Phu Pha Thaep; Phu Shang; Ubon Ratchathani: Kaeng Tana)
Euthalia aconthea apama ; Yamaguchi & Aoki,2002 : 29. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Ban Na Lak)
Euthalia aconthea apama ; Yamaguchi, Aoki & Akiyama,2005 : 51. (Mukdahan: Ban Lao Kram; Phu Huai Sing; Nam Tok Tad Ton; Ubon Ratchathani: Nam Tok Soi Sawan)
Euthalia aconthea apama ; Katsuyama et al.,2005 : 70, fig.170,♂. (Umphang)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 434, pl.191, figs.N142a♂,♂(Un),♀. (Bangkok)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 444, pl.195, figs.N307a♂,♂(Un),♀. (Chiang Mai)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2015- : Butterflies of Thailand, fig., Early Stages. (Sa Kaeo; Trat) (accessed: 2021.08.04)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 104, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Chiang Dao; Ban Salok; Phu Khiewo; Sarika; Wan Nam Khiewo; Bang Phra; Bang Sarrey; Pattaya; Bangkok; Sai York Noi)

[ LAOS ]
Euthalia garuda ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 231. (Laos)
Euthalia garuda f.apama ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1924 : 43. (Si-Khai)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 60, pl.67, figs.3,♂,4,♂(Un). (in part)
Euthalia eriphyle [sic] eriphyle [sic] ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 60, pl.69, figs.1♀,2♀(Un). (in part)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 207, pl.65, figs.♂,♀. (Phong Saly; Luang Phrabang)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 46.

[ CAMBODIA ]
Euthalia aconthe garuda ; Monastyrskii et al.,2011 : 129. (Phnom Samkos W.S.)

[ VIETNAM ]
Euthalia apama ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1919 : 231. (Cochinchine)
Euthalia garuda f.apama ; Dubois & Vitalis de Salvaza,1924 : 43. (Cochinchine)
Euthalia gurda ; Lemee,1950 : 65. (Saigon)
Euthalia garuda apama ; Metaye,1957 : 97. (S)
Euthalia aconthea ; Monastyrskii et al.,2006 : 41. (Thua Thien Hue: Bach Ma)
Euthalia aconthea apama ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2006b : 26, figs.N-88,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri)
Euthalia aconthea apama ; Nihira,2009 : 99, fig.♂. (Phu Quoc)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 40. (N / C / S)
Euthalia aconthea apama ; Saito et al.,2017 ; 81. (S: Nui Cam; Nui Coto)
Euthalia aconthea garuda ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(2):115-116, pl.63, figs.1a♂,1b♂(Un). (N: Tam Dao / C: Bach Ma; Yok Don; Chu Yang Sin; Krong Trai; Ninh Thuan; Yok Don; Hon Ba; Ba Ho; Da Teh; Cat Loc; Bao Lam)
Euthalia aconthea apama ; Monastyrskii,2019 : 4(2):115-116, pl.63, figs.1c♀,1d♀(Un). (S: Nam Cat Tien; Lo Go Xa Mat; Nghia Trung; Binh Chau)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 9♂ 3♀ (incl.photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 4♂ 4♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Loei : 1♂ (photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Bangkok : 2♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Sa Kaeo : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chonburi : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ VIETNAM ]
Lam Dong : 8♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes
The butterfly is common in montane forest at low to moderate elevations (alt.30m - 1300m) and is often found at secondary forest or garden trees in a town. Male makes a territory on the trees.
Some authors regard taxon apama as a good subspecies, however the species is highly variable and individual and seasonal variation seems to be more pronounced than geographic variation in continental region. It is very variable even in the same locality. Thus I treat it as synonym of garuda.

Literature

Horsfield, T. & F. Moore,[1858] :
A catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the Museum of the Honourable East-India Company. Vol.1.
London. East India Co.

Swinhoe, C.,1893 : A List of the Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills. Part.1.
Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 41(3):267-330.

Fruhstorfer, H.,1913 : 6. Familie: Nymphalidae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9
649-704. (28.Oct.1913)

Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀
♂, Loei, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Euthalia aconthea garuda ♀
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♀, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂ Euthalia aconthea garuda ♂
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

2007.02.10 - 2021.10.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.