Lebadea martha rufulus  Tsukada,1991

Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Un. Lebadea martha rufulus ♀ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♀ Un.
♂, Satun (Koh Tarutao), Thailand. ♀, Satun (Koh Tarutao), Thailand.
Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Un. Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Un.
♂, Satun (Koh Tarutao), Thailand. ♂, Satun (Koh Tarutao), Thailand.

Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Un. Lebadea martha rufulus ♀ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♀ Un.
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Samui dist.), Thailand. ♀, Surat Thani (Koh Samui dist.), Thailand.
Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Un. Lebadea martha rufulus ♀ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♀ Un.
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.), Thailand. ♀, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.), Thailand.
Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Un. Lebadea martha rufulus ♀ Up. Lebadea martha rufulus ♀ Un.
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.), Thailand. ♀, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan dist.), Thailand.

ON : Lebadea martha rufulus Tsukada,1991
OD : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands. 5:290,543,
pl.12, figs.9,(HT,♂),10(PT,♂Un),11(PT,♀).
TL : Langkawi Is., W.Malaysia. (♂, in coll. E.Tsukada)
Distribution : P.Thaialnd (Koh Tarutao), W.Malaysia (Langkawi).
[ Surat Thani: (Koh Samui ; Koh Phangan) ]

Synonym

Lebadea martha samuina Tsukada,1991 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands. 5:290,543, pl.12, fig.12,(HT,♀). TL. Samui Is., Thailand. (♀, in coll. E.Tsukada)


Type Materials Information

rufulus ;
Holotype ♂, 1983.xii.11. Langkawi Is. (in coll. E.Tsukada)
Paratype 1♂ 1♀, Langkawi Is. (in coll. E.Tsukada)
samuina ; Holotype ♀, 1989.iv.5. Samui Is. (in coll. E.Tsukada)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Lebadea martha malayana ; Les Day,2011- : Samui Butterflies, figs. (Koh Samui / Koh Phangan) (accessed: 2020.09.24)
Lebadea martha samuina ; Kimura et al.,2016 : 95. (by literature)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Satun (Koh Tarutao) : 3♂ 1♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

-------------------------------------------------------

Surat Thani (Koh Samui dist ; Koh Phangan dist.) : 4♂ 4♀.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes
The butterfly is common in montane and secondary forest at low elevations (alt.10m - 200m).
Tsukada (1991) described ssp.rufulus from Langkawi and ssp.samuina from Koh Samui. Ssp.samuina was described based on only one female which seems to be an extreme dry season individual. The populations in Langkawi - Koh Tarutao and Koh Samui - Koh Phangan seem to be identical in their characteristics. These 2 populations are quite similar to wet season form of continental population and Eliot & Kirton (2000) treated it as synonym of nominotypical subspecies. However, The ground color on the male UpF is darker, female white discal band on the UpH is narower and post discal black spots on the UnH are larger and more prominent than nominotypical subspecies. I know this is unnatural in terms of zoogeography, but I consider them to be the same subspecies and treat it as ssp.rufulus provisionally. It could be a similarity due to the oceanic climate, but I rather suspect it could be related to the origin of these islands, as the same tendency is seen in several other species. Further taxonomic study is needed including DNA analysis.

Literature

Tsukada, E.,1991 : Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands V, Nymphalidae (II). (in Japanese)
Azumino Butterflie's Research Institute. 576pp.(238 col. pls.)

Eliot, J.N. & L.G.Kirton,2000 : Revisional notes and nomenclatural changes of some Peninsular Malaysian butterflies
Malay. nat. J. 54(2):131-145.

Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Lebadea martha rufulus ♀
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan), Thailand. ♀, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan), Thailand. (photo by A.Giudici)
Lebadea martha rufulus ♂ Lebadea martha rufulus ♂
♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan), Thailand. (photo by A.Giudici) ♂, Surat Thani (Koh Phangan), Thailand. (photo by A.Giudici)

2020.10.31 - 2021.02.28.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.