Halpe arcuata  Evans, 1937

Halpe arcuata ♂ Up. Halpe arcuata ♂ Un. Halpe arcuata ♀ Up. Halpe arcuata ♀ Un.
♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♀, Xieng Khouang, Laos. (photo by H.Onodera)
Halpe arcuata ♂ Up. Halpe arcuata ♂ Un. Halpe arcuata ♂ Up. Halpe arcuata ♂ Un.
♂, Mae Hong Son, Thailand. ♂, Lampang, Thailand.
Halpe arcuata ♂ Up. Halpe arcuata ♂ Un. Halpe arcuata ♂ genitalia Halpe arcuata ♂ genitalia
♂, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ♂ genitalia, Mae Hong Son, Thailand.

ON : Halpe arcuata Evans, 1937
OD : Entomologist 70:17-18.
TL : Karen Hills, Burma. (♂, NHML)
Distribution : Nepal, Sikkim to Myanmar,
Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Yunnan, Guangxi.
Halpe arcuata map

Synonym

Halpe muoi Huang, 1999 : Lambillionea 99(4):664-665, figs.25(HT,♂), 34(HT,♂Un), 98-a(♂genitalia). TL. Qujing, N.E.Yunnan. (♂, QEC)


Type Material Information

muoi ; Holotype ♂, Jul.1992. Qujiang, 1500m, N.E.Yunnan. X.S.Muo leg. (Qingdao Education College, China)


Records taken from Literature

[ THAILAND ]
Halpe arcuata ; Pinratana,1985 : 56, pl.19, figs.111,♂,♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai; Chaiyaphum; Nakhon Nayok)
'Halpe kusala ; Kimura,1997 ; 45-46, pl.3, figs.47,♂,48,♂(Un). (Mae Hong Son)'
Halpe arcuata ; Ek-Amnuay,[2007] : 778, pl.357, figs.H128,♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai)
Halpe arcuata ; Kimura et al.,2011 : 58, figs.♂,♂(Un). (Doi Pha Hom Pok; Chiang Dao; Doi Inthanon; Bang Salok; Nakohn Nayok; Mae Sohd; 'Kao Poh Ta')
Halpe arcuata ; Ek-Amnuay,2012 : 830, pl.383, figs.H125,♂,♂(Un). (Chiang Mai)
'Halpe arcuata ; Küppers & Janikorn,2017 : 87, fig.Abb.H-112. (Phang Nga)'
'Halpe arcuata ; S.Sophonviwatkul, C.Sunthornwiphat & T.Laola,2023- : Butterflies of Thailand, fig. (Phetchabun) (accessed: 2023.07.14)'

[ LAOS ]
Halpe arcuata ; Motono & Negishi,1989 : 81, pl.113, figs.A9,♀,A10,♀(Un) ; B5,♂B6,♂(Un). (Phatong)
Halpe arcuata ; Osada, Uémura & Uehara,1999 : 223, pl.138, fig.♂(Un). (Phong Saly)
Halpe arcuata ; Nakamura & Wakahara,2012 : 58.
Halpe arcuata ; Onodera,2022 : 112, pl.249, figs.♂,♂(Un),♀,♀(Un). (Xiengkhoung: Tha)

[ VIETNAM ]
Halpe arcuata ; Devyatkin & Monastyrskii,2002 : 148. (Ba Be)
Halpe arcuata ; Miyazaki, Saito & Saito,2007b : 10, figs.H-54,♂,♀. (Lam Dong: Dambri; Dong Nai: Thac Mai)
Halpe arcuata ; Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2015 : 78. (N: Bac Can)


Specimens Examined

[ THAILAND ]
Mae Hong Son : 9♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Rai : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chiang Mai : 6♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Lampang : 5♂ (incl. photo).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phrae : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Nan : 3♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Phetchabun : 2♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Tak : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec

Chanthaburi : 1♂.
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


[ LAOS ]
Xieng Khouang : 1♂ 1♀ (photo by H.Onodera).
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec


Notes

The butterfly is locally not rare in montane forests at low to moderate elevations (Alt. 200 - 1300m). Males occasionally come to the banks of streams and puddles to suck water.
The white spots on the UpF are highly variable. The small white cell spot on the UpF is occasionally present, as mentioned by Evans,1949. This taxon can be distinguished from Halpe fushigina and Halpe scissa, which are very similar in pattern, by the presence or absence of pale brown patches on the androconial brand on the UpF, which are conspicuous in fushigina and scissa but absent in arcuata and lao. The population from W.Malaysia was previously treated as Halpe arcuata, but is now considered to be Halpe fushigina. Halpe lao is also very similar to this species. Sufficiently fresh specimens can be distinguished by the colouration of the cilia on the forewing. Halpe lao has a chequered pattern of dark brown and brown from vein 2 to the apex on the forewing whereas arcuata is uniformly brown. However, the cilia are easily lost, so examination of the male genitalia is necessary for accurate identification.

Kimura et al.,2011 recorded it from Kao Poh Tha, Surat Thani, which could be a variation of Halpe scissa or Halpe fushigina. Küppers & Janikorn,2017 recorded it from Phang Nga, and Sophonviwatkul et al. recorded it at Phetchabun, but these cannot be confirmed by photographs. Therefore, these records are not included here.
Further taxonomic and distributional studies are needed.

♂ androconial brand on the UpF.
Halpe arcuata ♂ UpF Halpe lao ♂ UpF Halpe fushigina ♂ UpF Halpe scissa scissa ♂ UpF Halpe scissa scissa ♂ UpF
arcuata lao fushigina scissa scissa (Chiang Mai) scissa scissa (Ranong)


Literature

Evans, W.H.,1937 : Indo-Australian Hesperiidae: Description of new Genera, Species and Subspecies.
Entomologist 70(1):16-19 (part.9), (2):38-40 (part.10), (3):64-66 (part.11), (4):81-83 (part.12).

Huang, H.,1999 : Some new butterflies from China - 1 (Rhopalocera)
Lambillionea 99(4):642-676.

Huang, H., & Xue, Y.,2004 : A Contribution to the butterfly fauna of Southern Yunnan (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera)
Neue Ent. Nachr. 57:135-154, pl.11.

Uehara, J. & Maruyama, K.,2016 :
The revision of Halpe arcuata group and description of two new species of Halpe Moore,1878 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) from Indochina.
Butterflies 73:19-24.


Halpe arcuata ♂ Halpe arcuata ♂
♂, Lampang, Thailand. ♂, Lampang, Thailand.

1999.09.04 - 2023.07.31.

A Check list of Butterflies in Indo-China, Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM. Copyright © 1996- Y.Inayoshi.